Home / Ilm / TASAVVUF CHIST DAR ISLOM

TASAVVUF CHIST DAR ISLOM

Tasavvuf yake az jarayonhoi diniyu falsafii maruf va buzurgu sershokhai islom meboshad. Hususiyati borizi tasavvuf dar on ast, ki vay nazar ba islomi rasmi va firqahoi on, ki badan zikr khohem kardem, kamtar ba jihati zohirii islom tavajjuh namuda, beshtar masalai botini, shinokhti qalbi irfonii Hudo va zimni on yo khud zeri pardai on yak qator masoili sof falsafi- shinokhtu marifat (gnoseologiya), vujudshinosi (ontologiya) va shinokhti nafs-ravonshinosi (psikhologiya)-ro ba miyon guzoshtaast. Ba Kavli Mavlono sufiyon meguyand:

Mo burunro nangaremu qolro

Mo darunro bingaremu holro.

Tasavvuf nakhust dar shakli tarki dunyo va etirozi gayri faol-passiv az zindagi va hayoti ijtimoiyu siyosi zamon ba vujud omada, dar ibtido beshtar ba zuhdu zohidi (gushanishiniyu parhezgori, faqru gurusnagi, qanoat va khoksori)-i goho omekhta bo riyoro targib mekard. Aksaran, bar in aqidaand, ki ahli tasavvuf baroi libosi suf-jomahoi durushtu khashani pashmina pushidanashon ba sufiyu tasavvuf mulaqqab shudaand. Bazei digar onro ishtiqoq az ahli suffa- mavzee, ki ashobi Payombar (s) davri u menishastaand donistaand. Dar ezohi manii tasavvuf aqidahoi digar niz joy dorand, vale in kitob havsalavu gunjoishi hamai onhro nadorad. Digar in ki zuhdgaroiyu sufimaobiro az tasavvuf va irfon farq kardan lozim ast. Behuda nest, ki dar tarikhi adabiyoti forsi kizbu riyoi zohid va sufi mazzamat, ishqi orif sitoish karda shudaast.CHunonki Hoja Hofiz mefarmoyad:

Hofiz in khirqai pashmina biandoz, ki mo,

Az pai qofila bo otashi oh omadaem.

yo khud

Otashi zuhdu riyo khirmani din khohad sukht, Hofiz inkhirqaipashmina biandozu birav.

Zaminai paydoish va rivoji tasavvufro ziddiyathoi ijtimoiyu siyosi va harakathoi mukholifi khilofati Ummaviyon va badan sharoiti siyosiyu ijtimoii hosila az istiloi mugul tashkil mekard. Dar avval on etirozi gayrifaol (passiv) ba sokhti ijimoiyu siyosii hokim bud, harchand dar baze mavrid tasavvuf hamchun nerui mukholifi faol va muborizu barandozandai nizomhoi siyosi niz zohir shudaast.

Va harchand asli goyavii tasavvufi islomiro Quron va hadisho tashkil mekunad, bo vujudi in dar paydoish va tahavvuli on tasiri afkori falsafiyu dinii nasroni, monavi, falsafai navaflotuni va unsurhoi judogonai irfoni hindi niz joy dorand. Muhaqqiqoni garbi dar in mavrid yak yo chande az in unsurhoi nomburdaro omili asosii paydoishi tasavvuf donistaand. Masalan, baze onro aksulamali tamadduni eroni bar farhangi somi ( E.Palmer va dig.), digare natijai tasiri afkori navaflotuni ( R.Nikolson va E.E.Bertels), bazeho sarchashmai ibtidoii tasavvufro dar dini nasroni (A. Merks, M.Smit va hamchunin R.Nikolson), bazehoi digar dar tasiri adyoni hindi- hinduiya va buddoiya ( A. fon Kremer, R.Dozh, M. Horten, R.Zener) va gayra justaand.

Namoyandagoni marufi tasavvuf dar asrkhoi 8-10-um: Hasani Basri (vaf.728), Robiai Adviya (713-801), Abuhoshimi Sufi, Sufyoni Savri, Ibrohimi Adham, Abusulaymon Dovudi Toyi, SHaqiq ibni Ibrohimi Balkhi, Fuzayli Iyoz. Marufi Karhi, Abuabdullo Horisi Mahosibi, Abuhasan Sori ibni al-Mugallas ibni as- Saqati. Zunnuni Misri (806-860), Junaydi Bagdodi (vaf.910), Boyazidi Bistomi (vaf.874), Sahl ibni Abdullohi Tustari, Mansuri Halloj (857-922) va SHibli ( vaf.946) meboshand. Az in bayn nakhust Zunnuni Misri hamzamon bo zuhd va parhezgori ba sufiya unsurhoi falsafai navaflotuniro dokhil namud. Junayd onro murattab va munazzam sokht, Boyazid dar shathiyotash sadoi -“Subhoni, subhoni.! Mo azam-ush-shani!” (“Sutudashudaam , sutudashudaam! CHi andoza shani man buzurg ast!”) va “Inni Allohu lo iloha illo ano”-(“Dar haqqat man Hudoyam, gayri man khudoe nest”)-ro sar dod va Mansuri Halloj ba on bo nidoi “Anal Haqq!”, yane “Man ayni Haqqam (Hudoyam)!” bo u hamovoz shud va nagmai v a h d a t i v u j u dro taninandoz kardand.

Bad az asri H az simohoi marufi tasavvuf Abulhasani Haraqoni, Abusaidi Abulkhayr, Bobo Tohiri Uryon, Abualii Dakkok, Abuishoqi Kozuruni, Abulfazli Sarakhsi, Abdurrahmoni Sulami, Abulqosimi Gurgoni, Ahmadi Gazzoli, Aynulquzzoti Hamadoni, Ahmadi Jomi, Fariduddini Attor va gayraro nom burdan mumkin.

Marhilai duyum dar tarikhi tasavvuf bo hamlai mugul ba Eronu Huroson, taboh shudani vazi madaniyu farhangi, kharobivu vayronii shahrhoi obodi on vobastagi dorad. Dar in bayn Sugd, Horazm, Bokhtar va Huroson, ki gahvorai farhangu tamadduni Eron budand beshtar sadama didand. Ahli in joyho bisyore kushta shudand, barkhe ru ba Hind va barkhe ru ba SHomu Iroq firor kardand, khulosa har kase tavonist jon ba salomat burd va tarki Vatan kard. Dar natija in mintaqaro vaziyati ikhtinoqu khafaqon, mayusivu navmedii sarosari faro girift. Vale otashi khonumonsuzi hujumi mugul natavonist afkori ijtimoi-falsafiro ba kulli az bayn barad. Ohista-ohista az bayni khokistaru khoktudahoi shahrhoi kharob mardoni mutafakkir qomat rost karda, afkori falsafiyu ilmiro dar libosi tasavvuf, ki koritarin vositai bayoni afkori peshqadam va bayongari ruhiyai mardum dar on sharoit bud, zinda nigoh doshtand. Mahz dar hamin davra simohoi namoyoni tasavvuf va irfon chun SHahobuddini Suhravardi (1155-1191), Sadii SHerozi (1203- 1292), SHaykh Muhammad SHabistari (1284-1320) va bisyor digaron, ki majoli asomii hamai onhoro dar in jo ovardan nest, ba maydon omadaand. Dar asrhoi H111-HU11 dar nazmi forsi orifone chun: Mavlono Jaloliddini Rumi, SHaykh Sanoi, SHaykh Fariduddini Attor, Hoja Hofizi SHerozi, Amir Husravi Dekhlavi, Nizomuddin Avliyo, Mavlono Abdurrahmoni Jomi va digaron shuhrat yoftand.

Dar mavridi naqsh va maqomi tasavvuf dar tarikhi madaniyat va farhangi mardumi SHarq andesha ronda, agar mo hatto, tanho ba nomgui nomukammali shakhsiyathoi barjasta, ki osori ilmiyu adabi va falsafiashon bo tasavvuf aloqamand ast diqqat dihem, ba khubi khohem daryoft, ki irfon va tasavvuf magz andar magzi farhangi guzashtai mo joy girftaast va biduni omuzishi hamatarafai maorifi diniyu falsafii islom, alalkhusus tasavvuf fahmidan va shinokhti boyadu shoyadi on mahol ast.

TALIMOTI TASAVVUF

ASLI TALIMOTI TASAVVUFro tavhid dar shakli v a h d a t i v u j u d tashkil mekunad. Tavhid dar tasavvuf nazar ba islomi rasmi tafovuti jiddi dorad. Hudoi yagonai berun az olam-movarouttabii dar tasavvuf joy nadorad. Baraks Hudo va tabiat yak asli vohid, yak javhar (substansiya)-i vohid donista meshavad. Tavhidi tasavvuf hama mavjudro, juz Hudo, tanho namud meshumorad, na vujudi voqei. Mavjudi haqiqi faqat Hudost, boqi hama tajallii Hudo meboshand. Juz Hudo hej chiz vujudi voqei nadorad. Mazhari tabiat misli zuhuri yakh dar rui ob ast, chun garmi bar on asar namoyad, on yakh boz ba ob bargardad. On shabehi monizmi hinduiya meboshad, ki dar on gufta meshavad: “Hamchunon ki ob ba yakh va shir ba jurgot tabdil meyobad Brahma niz shakl digar mekunad”, yane hastiro az khud tavlid mekunad. Tavhidi tasavvufro agar farazan bo kalimai shahodati islomi rasmi muqoisa kunem, farq dar on ast, ki sufi- orif ba joi “Nest Hudoe ba juz Alloh”, ba qavli Muhammad Iqbol,”Nest mavjude ba juz Alloh”, meguyad. Nihoyat tavhidi orif va mutasavvif tayi tariq-roh kardan va rasidan ba marhilaest, ki juz Hudo hej nabinand. Dar talimoti tasavvuf masalai khudoshinosi va khudshinosii inson bo ham aloqamandand. Muvofiqi h a d i s i q u d s i\sukhanoni khudo, ki dar Quron vorid nashudaand\ parvardigor makhluqotro baroi shinosonidani khud ofaridaast. Dar on hadis omada: “Kuntu kanzan makhfiyan fa aradtu an urafa fa khalqtu al-khalqa likay urafa.”YAne, man ganjinai pinhon budam va bikhostam to maro bishnosand pas makhluqotro ofaridam to shinokhta shavam. Ba qavli mavlono Jaloluddin Rumi:

Ganji makhfi bud ,zi purri chok kard,

Hokro tobontar az aflok kard.

Ganji makhfi bud zi purri jush kard, Hokro sultoni atlaspush kard.

Tibqi in talimot goyati ofarinishi olam inson ast, ki u qodir ba shinokhti Hudost, ammo khudoshinosii inson be khudshinosii u muyassar nakhohad shud, az in ru hadisi digarest, ki dar on farmudaast: “Man arafa nafsahu faqad arafa rabbahu”- YAne har ki khudro shinokht, hamono Pavardigorashro shinokhta ast.

Tanosubi insonu Hudo tanosubi o l a m i a k b a r va olami a s g a r ast. Olami asgar (inson) chun inikosi khurshed-( olami akbar) dar oyinai kuchakest. In ast ki orifon dar khudshinosi va khudoshinosi ba marhilae merasand, ki bayni khud va Hudo farqe namebinand. Ba qavli Mavlono Jaloluddin Rumi:

Onon, ki talabgori khudoed, khudoed, Berun zi shumo nest, shumoed, shumoed.

Dar doirai shinokhti tasavvuf bisyore az masalahoi marifat va ravonshinosi niz tahqiqiqu barrasii khudro yoftaand. Ahli tasavvuf se zinai marifatro: a- ilm-ul-yaqin. b-ayn-ul-yaqin va v-hakkul-yakin muayyan kardaand. Ba tarzi obraznok in se zinaro taqriban chunin bayon namudaand: a- guftand yo shunidam, ki otash mesuzonad va ogahi paydo kardam, ki otash mesuzonad; b- didam ki otash suzond va yaqin kardam, ki otash mesuzonidaast; v- nihoyat, khud dar otash sukhtam va donistam, ki sukhtan chist.

Dar nazariyai marifati irfoni maqomi dil va i sh q u zavqi irfoni /dar muqoisa bo aql/ nihoyat baland ast. Ba shinokhti Hudo va rasidan ba tavhid na aqlro, balki dilro, ki makoni ishq ast, beshtar qodir meshumorand.

Tasavvuf tanho yak jarayon yo maktabi nazariyu falsafi nest, balki yak nihodi ijtimoi va sozmoni munazzam va tarzi zindagi niz meboshad. In bakhshi amalii tasavvufro tashkil medihad. SHakhsi ba rohi tasavvuf qadam nihoda- s o l i k pas az intikhobi p i r- m u r sh i d va taslim shudan ba u boyad se manzil-zina ( yo v o d i)-i s a y r u s u l u k- ro pushti sar kunad. Marohil va manzilhoi rohi rasidan ba tavhidro orifon se: shariat, tariqat, va haqiqat va baze chahor: sh a r i a t, t a r i q a t m a r i f a t va h a q i q a t shumoridaand. SHariat on sarmanzilest, ki dar on solik boyad tamomi ahkomi sharii islomro ijro kunad, to az in vodi ba vodii tariqat dokhil shavad.Tariqat marhilai amal, riyozati ruhoni, takomuli manavi, tasfiya va tazkiyai nafs ast. \aqiqat sarmanzili shinokht va tavhid ast, ki badi dar khud kushtan, pakhsh kardani nafs va m a n i ya t (annoniyat) solik ba on merasad va dar u holati fano hosil meshavad. Baze urafo manozil yo zinahoro az in ham beshtar medonand. Masalan SHaykh Fariduddin Attor az haft vodi: talab, ishq, marifat, istijno, tavhid, hayrat va fano dar “Mantiq-ut-tayr”, sukhan guftaast.

Dar tasavvuf ba gayr az manozil yo vodihoi nomburda, haddi aqal az haft m a q o m (tavba, vara, zukhd, faqr, sabr, tavakkul va rizo) va dah h o l a t (muroqiba, qurb, muhabbat, khavf, rijo, shavq, uns, itminon, mushohida va yaqin)-i sufi yo orif sukhan guftaand. Solik boyad in maqomot va holotro zina ba zina pushti sar kunad to ba sarmanzili maqsud rasad. Maqomotro metavon zinahoi taslim va tafsiyai nafs va holatro vaziyat va holati psikhologiyu ekhsosi ( emosionali)-i solik donist.

Dar nazariyai marifati irfoni maqomi dil va i sh q u z a v q i irfoni \ dar muqoisa bo aql \ nihoyat baland ast. Ba shinokhti Hudo va rasidan ba tavhid na aqlro balki dilro , ki makoni ishq ast, beshtar qodir meshumorand.

Sufiyon libosi khose mepushidand, ki kh i r q a nom dosht va dar mahalhoi muayyan mezistand, ki kh o n aq o nomida meshud. Az amali onkho gusha-ch i l l a n i sh i n i, s a m o –ijroi marosim bo musiqivu raqsro metavon nom burd.

Tasavvuf ba chandin shokha-firqa ( yo tariqat) taqsim shudaast, ki maruftarini onho: muhosibiya, qassoriya, tayfuriya, junaydiya, nuriya, sahliya, hakamiya, khafifiya, khuroziya, sayyoriya, uvaysiya, adhamiya, chishtiya, marufiya, suhravardiya, mavlaviya, nurbakhshiya, safaviya, nematulloiya, kubraviya va zahabiya, bektoshiya, rifoiya, naqshbandiya, jamoliya, qodiriya, malomatiya, yasaviya, khojagon ast.

Dar Osiyoi Markazi beshtar payravoni firqa yo tariqathoi kubraviya, naqshbandiya va yasaviya tasiri ziyod doshtand. Asosguzori firqai kubraviya SHaykh Najmuddini Kubro (1145-1221) buda, in tariqat ibtidoi asri XIII dar Horazm tashakkul yoftaast. Tariqati kubraviya yake az shokhahoi eroni-oriyoii tasavvuf buda, dar tarikhi madaniyati khalqhoi Osiyoi Markazi naqshi ziyode guzoshtaast. Tasavvufshinosi marufi inglis Trimingem J. S. dar mavridi asari Najmuddini Kubro “Fi adabis-solikin” farmudaast, ki on marhilai muhime dar rohi eronikunonii tasavvuf bud”.

NAQSHBANDIYA

yake az tariqathoi marufi tasavvuf dar Osiyoi Markazi meboshad, ki dar sadai XIV zuhur karda, bo nomi asosguzori on SHaykh Bahouddini Naqshband (1319-1389) nomida shudaast. Naqshbandiya tazohurro dar diyonat va ibodat mazammat namuda, rioyati qatii sunnati payombarro talab mekunad, baroi darveshon gushanishiniro dar khonaqohho hatmi nameshumorad, balki shiori “Dast ba koru dil ba yor”- ro talqin menamoyad. Payravoni in firqa beshtar az bayni hunarmandon va kosiboni shahri budand.

YASAVIYA

firqaest az tasavvuf, ki asosguzori on shaykh Ahmadi YAsavi (vaf.1166)meboshad. In firqa talimoti islomro baroi shuuri qabilahoi turki Osiyoi Markazi muvofiq namudaast. Namoyandagoni marufi on – Sulaymoni Boqirgoni va Sufi Ollohyor meboshand, ki dar intishori tasavvuf dar bayni uzbekon va turkoni Osiyoi Markazi naqshi muassir dorand.

Dar tuli chandin asri vujudi tasavvuf yak zumra adabiyoti nazariyaviyu tarikhii tasavvuf ba vujud omadand. Az jumla metavon az “Kitob al- lamma”-i as-Sarroj, “Kitob at-taoruf”-i al-Kalobodi, “Kitob al- qulub”-i al-Makki “Risolatul-Qushayriya”-i Abulqosim Qushayri (986- 1074), “Kashf-ul-mahjub”-i Julobii Hajviri (a.H1), ” Ehyo ul-ulum-ad- din”-i Imom Muhammad Razzoli, “Fusus-ul-hikam” va “al- Futuhot-ul- Makkiya”-i Ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240), “Tazkirat-ul- avliyo”-i Fariddudin Attor va tayra nom burd.

Naqshi tasavvuf dar tarikhi madaniyu farhangi va ijtimoiyu siyosii olami islom khele ziddiyatnok ast. Az yak su, beshak tasavvuf yak padidai diniyu manavi va ijtimoiyu siyosiest, ki na tanho dar tarikhi tamadduni islomi balki dar tamadduni umumibasharii jahoni tasiru naqshi buzurge guzoshtaast. Dar zeri chatri tasavvuf behtarin osori nasriyu nazmi dar tarikhi ilmu adabi khalqhoi musalmon ba vujud omadand va on dar tarbiyai manaviyu akhloqi, rushdi adabiyotu farhang naqshi bosazoe guzoshtaast. Az sui digar, tasavvuf dar shakli zuhdu sufigari ba rivoji dunyobezori, tanbali, tazohur va riyo va dar natija dur shudan az asli ijtihodu jihodi sozandai islom, aqibmonii millathoi musalmon az qofilai tarikh niz tasiri manfii khudro guzoshtaast. Az in ru besabab nest, ki on az tarafi yak zumra mutafakkironi islomi zeri toziyonai intiqod qaror giriftaast

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

7_resize

DINI BAHOIYA

Bahoiya yake az junbishhoi mazhabii nimai duyumi asri XIX dar Eron ast, ki badan khudro …