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TAVROT VA ASLI TALIMOTI YAHUDIYA

Sarchashmahoi yahudiyaro haddi aqal metavon ba du davra taqsim kard. Davrai avval sarchashmahoest, ki dar zaminai sof yahudi, dini musavi ba vujud omada, tashakkul yoftaand. Navishtajoti muqaddas (Sfarim)i in davra dar navishti kutohi ibroni chun Tanakh malum ast, ba on pesh az hama Tavrot -«Panjkitob»-i Muso: kitobhoi «Hasty (Bitie)», «Huruj (Iskhod) », «Levit» (Levit) », «Adadho (CHisel) » va «Takrori shariat (Vtorozakonie) », va 21 kitobi anbiyo (Neveim), ki khususiyati diniyu siyosi va tarikhiyu taqvimikhronologi dorand va 13 kitobi (Ketuvim) janrhoi mukhtalifi dini doshta shomiland.

tavrotQismati az hama qadimi Tanakh ba asri X t.m. taalluq dorad. In qismat dar hududi soli 444 t.m. sabti khatti yoftaast. Korho oid ba tartib dodani matni qonunishudai Navishtajoti muqaddas dar asrhoi 111-11 t.m. ba anjom rasida bud.[1]

Sarchashmai qadimtarin «Panjkitob»-i Muso ast, ki dar kitobi avvali on asosi nazariyai komsomologii yahudiyon (paydoishi olam, va sokhtmoni koinot, paydoishi inson va tarikhi ibtidoii usturavii bani Odam) bayon shudaast, dar kitobi duyum va seyum risolati Muso va vahy yo avomiri YAhva ba bani Isroil, ki ba Muso nozil shudaast va du kitobi badi niz doroi dasturot mazhabi va akhbori tarikhii bani Isroil bad va havodisi khuruj az Misr meboshand.

Digare az sarchashmahoi muhimmi dini yahudiya Mirdash-Galakh-tafsirhoi Tavrot, Mishnamajmui qonunho va muqararoti yahudiya va Talmud– sharhhoi amali ba matni Mishna meboshand, ki hududi asrhoi 2-5 m. komilan takomul va tadvin shudaand. Talmud dar avval hamchun sunnati shifohi va dar asri 3 m. ba shakli kitobat girdovari shudaast. CHunon ki dar bolo gufta shud, dar Tavrot tasavvurot dar borai hayoti ondunyovi vujud nadorad, vale dar Talmud ba in talimot ahamiyati favqulodda doda shudaast. Dar on oid ba qiyomat -ruzi mashar (yavmul-hisob) va mukofoti amal va gayra mufassal malumot doda shudaast. Va chunon ki gufta shud, in tasavvurot dar zaminai tasiri dini zardushtiya ba vujud omadaand. Du varianti Talmud mavjud ast, ki yake bobuli va digare falastini meboshand. Dar Talmud dasturoti asosii marosimiyu sharii yahudiya inikos yoftaast, dar on 248 farmoish (amri maruf) va 365 muharramot (nahiy az munkar) mavjud ast.

CHunon ki dar ibtido guftem, dini yahudiya tavhidi meboshad, yane talimoti onro bovari ba vujudi Hudoi yagona tashkil mekunad.

Hudoi yagona YAhvo (Iegova) va Savaof nom dorad. Vale dar ibtido, chunon ki az mazmunu mundarijai Panjkitobi Muso istinbot meshavad, hanuz etiqod ba tavhidi kholis vujud nadoshtaast. Hudoi yahudiyon dar Tavrot doroi farzandon ast yo khud dar barobari u khudoyoni digar va vujudi khudoi millathoi digar rad karda nashudaand.

Az bobi misol dar Tavrot chunin mekhonem: «Vaqto ki dar rui zamin odamon ziyod shudan giriftand va az onho dukhtaron tavallud shudand, on goh pisaroni Hudovand didand, ki dukhtaroni odamzod khushruyand, har yak kadomero , ki khush mekardand, baroi khud ba zanimegiriftand.» / Hasti.6:1-2/; yo khud «Va bigu firavnro: Hudovand chunin meguyad: Isroil pisari nakhustzodai Man ast» / Huruj. 4: 22/.

Dar Panjkitobi Muso harchand borho davat shudaast, ki ba khudoyoni digar ibodat nakunand \Huruj. 23:13, 24,32,33\va baroi khud khudoi rekhta (buttaho) masozad, vale dar hej jo formuli «nest khudoe ba juz YAhvo» ba chashm namerasad. Baraks, dar on az YAhvo hamchun «Hudoi khudoyon va Hudovandi khudovandon»\Tak. shari. 10:17\ chun dar anjumani khudoyoni yunoni yod shudaast. Hulosa, masalai yaktoi (ahadiyat va vahdoniyati)-i Hudoi taolo dar Tavrot mavridi takid va bahsi jiddi qaror nagiriftaast. YAhvo dar Tavrot kamtar dar borai yagonagii khud gap mezanad.

YAhvo tanho khudoi millati yahud ast, u khudro chun khudoi tamomi insoniyat, khudoi olam elon namekunad. U ba Muso meguyad: «Man Hudoi padari tu, Hudoi Ibrohim, Hudoi Ishoq va Hudoi YAqubam». Muso ba Firavn meguyad: «Hudovand Hudoi ibriyon, maro nazdi tu firistoda.» /Huruj.7:16/. In khud guvohii on ast, ki harchand payravoni dini musovi ba yak Hudo ( khudoi kholiq, qahhor va intiqomgir, khudoi jabbor va mujizaofarin) bovari doshtand, vale in manii inkori vujudi khudoyoni digar yo khudoi khalqhoi digarro nadoshtaast. Etiqodi yahudiyon dar in davra, na monoteisti, balki genoteisti meboshad. Genoteizm (yo enoteisti) yak shakli bisyorkhudoi ast, ki vujudi khudoyoni digarro inkor namekunad, vale yak khudoro az bayni onho hamchun khudoi asosii khud intikhob mekunad.

Gayr az in dar «Panjkitob»-i Muso hej guna ishorae dar mavridi hayoti pasazmargi nest va hej guna vadavu vaide dar mavridi hayoti on dunyo doda nashudaast. Tamomi tahdidho va vadai mukofoti amal, ki az YAhvost, ba zindagii voqeii zaminii yahudiyon taalluq dorad.

Bani Isroil tibqi Tavrot khalqi barguzidai YAhvo meboshand, vale bo vujudi in Hudo dar hangomi rioya nakardani avomiri U be tarahhum onhoro jazo medihand va har guna balohoro bar sarashon mefiristad.

Muhimtarin ahkome ki dar Tavrot, kitob «Huruj» bobi 20 omadaand, ahkomi dahgonai (ilohi) ba Muso meboshand:

  • (2) « Man Parvardigori tuam, ki turo ( bani Isroil) az sarzamini Misr. az khonai gulomy berun ovardam.

2(3) Turo khudoyoni digare juz Mannaboyad boshad.(4). Baroikhud butmataroshva hej guna tasvire az on chy dar osmoni alo va on chy dar kari zamin va dar obhoi zeri zaminast, makash. (5) Ba onho sajda nabarva onhoro ibodatmakun:

3(7) Nomi parvardigoratro behuda ba zabon magir. CHunki Parvardigor kasero, ki behuda ismi Uro ba zabonmeorad, bejazo nakhohadguzosht.

4(8) Ruzi shanbero faromush makun, to onro mukaddas dony(9) SHash ruz kor kun va har kore, ki dory anjom deh.(10). Vale ruzi haftum -shanbe ruzi Hudovand- Hudoi tust: dar on hej kore nakun, na pisari tu, na dukhtari tu, na gulomi tu, na hayvoni tu, na musofiri tu, ki dar khonai tu ast.(11). CHunki dar zarfi shash ruz Parvardigor osmon va zamin, bahr va har chy dar on ast ofarid: va dar ruzi haftum orom girift. Bino bar in Hudovand ruzi shanbero muborak khond va onro mukaddas namud.

  • (12). Padaru modari khudro izzat namo, to umri tu bar zamine, kiHudovand- Hudo dodaast daroz shavad.
  • (13) Odam makush.
  • (14) Zino makun
  • (15). Duzdy makun.
  • (16) Dar hakki yoroni khud shahodati durug madeh.
  • (17) Honai yori khudro tama nakun: zani yori khud, na bandaiuro, na kaniziuro, na khariuro hej chiz az chizi nazdikoni khud talabnakun.»- Inhoyand on dah ahkomi asosii ilohy, ki ba Muso nozil shudaand.

[1]  Osnovi religiovedeniya: Ucheb/ YU.F. Borunkov, I.N. YAblokov,K., Nikonov i dr., M.: Vissh. shk.,1998.-S.133.

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