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TALIMOT DINIYU FALSAFAI BUDDO

Dar atrofi talimoti Buddo aqidaho gunogunand: yak guruh donishmandon onro falsafai sof, digaron navi dini barkamol mehisoband. Vayro savolhoi « Ki olamro ofarid?», «Hasti az kujo va kay ba vujud omad?» jalb namekunad. Vazifai u nishon dodani rohi najot ast. U dar yak mavizahoyash masale ovardaast, ki dar on gufta meshavad : « shakhse ki tir ba badani u furu rafta, na ba bahsi sababi tir khurdan, balki ba chi guna berun kashidani tir ehtiyoj dorad.»[1]

budizm-2Buddo usuli mazhabi khudro dar sukhanronii maruf bo «Mavizai bogi gazolon» bayon kardaast, ki chunin ast: «Dar tamomi ashyoro du hadd(-i ifrot) ast, mardi solik boyad az har du haddi ifrot biparhezad. Masalan, zindagonii sarosar ayshu nush va shahvatroni nopisandu zishtu furumoya ast, hamchunin zindagonii sarosar faqru ranju riyozat, pur az sakhtivu zahmat niz nomatlub va behuda meboshad.

Az in ru, mardi solik va tolibi haqiqat (tamogata) az in du sarhad (ifrotu tafrit) boyad kanorajui kunad va nuqtai mobayniro, ki adolati haqiqi ast, ba dast ovarad, ki dar on nuqta nuri marifat tobish mekunad va gavhari ilm va saodat va osoishu ishtiyoq dar on jost va nihoyat nirvona az on nuqta hosil meshavad.» Buddo masuli vaziyatu holati har shakhsro khudi u medonad. «Vujudi kununii har fard natijai amoli ust.» [2]

Bovari ba rukni duvvum -dkharma ba poyai shinokhti chahon haqiqat va hasht usuli amal ustuvor ast. Va on chahor haqiqa t iboratand:

  1. Dakkkha-yane zindagimusibaturanj ast; [3] tavvalud-ranju azobast, kasali- ranju azob ast, marg-azob ast;
  2. Samudaya– yane sababiranju musibatho- khostho-shahvathost;
  3. Nirodkha-yanerohinajot, khomushkardanikhosthova otashishahvathost;
  4. Marga(yomagga)-yanerohi khomushva pakhshkardan -islohva tazkiyainafsast[4]

Dar talimoti Buddo maqomi namoyonro aqida dar borai «Nirvona» tashkil mekunad. Tibqi aqidai Buddo har fardero, ki ba nirvona rasidaast, digar ehtiyoj ba «karma» nest. Nirvona holati oromishe hast, ki pas az galaba bar nafs ba odami dast medihad Dar buddizm holati bolotar az nirvona niz vujud dorad, ki onro «Kara Nirvona» nomand. In holat faqat bad az marg ba dast meoyad. «Nirvona» kushtani hamaguna khohish, chi nagzu, chi bad nest.

Az rui manii haqiqii nirvona furu nishonidani shahvat, nafrat va jaholat ast. Nirvona kamoltalabi ast, na fanojui. Nirvona rahoi yoftan az sharri fardiyat va anoniyat va payvastan ba kull, bozgasht ba jarayoni muloimi rudi hasti ast. Nirvona nopadid shudani nuri sham dar barobari nuri khurshed ast.[5] Nirvona in khomush gardidani khosthoi durugin , na hama guna nestivu fanost.[6]

In hama dar natijai payravi az hasht usuli amal, ki asosi talimoti akhloqii buddoiya hast muyassar meshavad. Talimoti akhloqivu manavii buddoiya. Tariqati Buddo rohi mobayni ast, vay az ifrotu tafrithoi har du taraf, onhoe, ki sad dar sad pobandi maylu shahvatand va onhoe, ki mekhohand hamaguna maylu khohishhoi tabii insonro nest kunand, kanorajui kardaast. In rohi mobayni-rohi najot va tazkiyai nafsro rohi oriyoni nomidaand, ki ibtidoi onro Zardusht bar se zinai kamoli akhloqi guzoshta va Buddo onro to hasht zina tavsia bakhshidaast:

  1. pindori nek
  2. guftori nek
  3. raftori nek
  4. mujodilai nek
  5. nigohi nek
  6. taaqquli nek
  7. kasbu kori nek
  8. idroki nek

Muhimtarin sharti tahzibu tazkiyai nafs, rasidan ba saodat, pok sokhtani zamiri botin az afkori bad meboshad. In nuktaro, ki pesh az Buddo Zardusht matrah karda ast, voqean usulitarin aslpoyai tazkiyai nafs, ibtido va sarchashmai pokii shuuri akhloqii inson ast. Najot tanho dar jahoni darun ast. Najot tanho az tariqi tagyiri ravishi afkor ast. Fikru andesha asosi hastii manavii odamist. Ba qavli Mavlono Jaloliddini Rumi:

«Ey barodar, tu hamin andeshai»

Buddo baroi rahoi az afkori badu nopok panj dastur dodaast:

  • afkori pokro joyguzini afkori nopok kun;
  • mardona ba afkorinopokru ba rushav va onhoro nopok, ziyonovar va huznangez, chunon ki hast, hamon tavr bishnos;
  • afkori nopokro az khud dur kun;
  • afkori nopokro mavridi tahlilu tajziya qaror deh va tarkibi onro bishnos;
  • bo tamomi qudrat bo afkori nopok muboriza namo, onro nobud soz.

Har goh insoniyat tavonist ba afkoru pindori bad piruz shavad va fikru zikr, pindoru afkori nekro joyguzini pindoru afkori bad qaror dihad, zaminai akhloqu raftori bad, angezai zishtiho az bayn meravad.

[1]   Erriker K. Buddizm/ Per.s ang. L.Beskovoy.-M.: FAIR-PRESS, Informpress, 1999._ S. 16.

[2]  Djavokhirlal Neru, Otkritie Indii, k.1, M: Politizdat 1989.- S.198.

[3]  Ba yod ored ruboii zerini Umari Hayyomro:

Olam hama mehnat astu ayomi gam ast,

Gardun hama ofat astu geti sitam ast.

Filjumla chu dar kori jahon menigaram,

Osuda kase nest va gar hast kam ast.

[4]  Mekhrdodi Mekhrin, Falsafai SHark. S. 92.

[5]  Djavakharlal Neru. Otkritie Indii. Kni.1.-S.199

[6] Muhammad R. Falsafa az ogozi tarikh.- S.37-38

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