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TALIMOTI MAZDAK

Moni talim medod, ki jahon natijai asorati nur /ravon/ dar zindoni zulmat /modda/ ba vujud omada va zulmat boisi in omezish shudaast. In ba aqidai Zardusht, ki nurro omili paydoishi olam medonist, ziddiyat dosht. Va bahs ham rui on bud, ki oyo chunin omezish imkonpazir ast?

Mazdak, dar in bahs bar aksi Moni, dalel pesh meovarad, ki zulmat na hush dorad va na iroda, qodir nest dar qalamravi nur rakhna kunad. Boyad yaqin kard, ki nur bar zulmat rakhna karda.

mazdakCHun zindagii dunyovi aksaran nopok va gayri ruhoni ast va janbai nuroni /manavi/-i odami zaiftar az janbai zulmoni /moddi/-i u meboshad. Binobar in Mazdak farz karda, ki zindagii dunyovi usulan zulmoni ast va omezish bo nur, on chunon ki Moni mepindorad, ikhtiyori nabudaast. Nure, ki dar zulmat mahbus ast, az hush va iroda barkhurdor ast. Binobar in u boyad ba vazu holati gayri tabiii khud pay burda , say kunad, to khudro ozod namuda, ba asli khud bipayvandad.

Hulosa:

  • Moni nurro be iroda va gayri faol meshumorid, vale aqidai Mazdak dar in masala ba kulli digar ast. Tibqi talimoti Mazdak baraks nur ogoh, vale zulmat kur, harakati nur irodi va harakati zulmat gayri irodi ast. Az in ru, galabai nur zaruri va qati va piruzii zulmat tasodufi va muvaqqati ast.
  • Mazdak omezishi nur va zulmat va paydoishi jahoni moddiro dar asosi in muqaddima tasodufi meshumorad va in bahamomeziro iborat az se marhala medonad. Dar marhalai avval nur va zulmat az ham judo va mustaqil budand, marhalai duyum marhalai ba ham omekhtani unsurhoi nuru zulmat va nihoyat, marhalai seyum, marhalai judoshavii nur az zulmat. Ba vuqu payvastani in kor hatmist va tahaqquqi on az rohi musoidatu yorii mardum ba nur va nabardu muboriza bo neruhoi zulmoni muyassar ast.
  • Vazifai odami on ast, ki nur- rushnoiro az changi zulmot-toriki birahonad va bo in ba marhalai tasodufii omezish khotima dihad va nurro bar masnadi qudrat va isolati khud binishonad.
  • Asosi talimoti dinii mazdakiya ba ravshani dugaroi ast. Ofaridgori olam, dar Mazdakiya az ogoz du asl ast. YAzdon, ki nur ast, ofaridgori khayr va Ahriman, ki on zulmat ast, ofaridgori shar.

Tamomi sifat, khulqu khuy va mavjudoti khubu badi olam, tavassuti in du asli avvalin ofarida shudaand. Amol va havodisi nek (khayr) dar asari angezai YAzdon ast va amolu havodisi bad (sharir) dar asari angezishi Ahriman. Masalan, otashe, ki sarmozadaro garm kunad, vazidani bod, ki harorati garmoro past kunad va ob, ki tashnaro serob kunad va tamomi hayvonotu maodini sudmand ba inson- hama ofaridai YAzdonand va ammo suzondani otash jonvaronro yo masalan, sukhtori jangal, kushtani bodi samum jondoronro, garq gardidani kishti dar ob va hamchunin hayvonu khazandavu hasharoti muzzir- ofaridai Ahriman meboshand. Nihoyat, ezid hayotro ofarid, Ahriman marg /mamot/-ro va g-ra.

Talimoti u misli talimoti Moni bar poyai zuhd va porsoi qaror giriftaast. Mazdak parhezgori va riyozat meomukht, khurdani gusht, kushtani jondor, jangu khunreziro man mekard.

Muhimtar az hama dar talimoti Mazdak masalai ijtimoist.Muhammad Iqbol Mazdakro «paygambari mardumgaroy va jomeagaro \sosialist\»[1] nomidaast. Goyai adolati ijtimoi va barobari az muhimtarin poyahoi talimoti ijtimoii Mazdak meboshand. U aqida dosht, ki nemathoi moddiro Ahuromazdo ba hamai mardum dodaast, nobarobari az on jo barkhosta, ki kasone az tariqi zuri va jabr molhoi digaronro az khud kardaand.

Mazdakiya dar talimolti khud, ziddiyatho va nobarobarihoi zamoni khudro inikos kardaast. Vay zamone zuhur kard, ki sharoiti zindagii mardum alalkhusus tabaqai zahmatkashi jomeai sosoni nihoyat toqatfarso bud. In vaziyat dar ahdi saltanati shoh Qubbod \sal. az s. 488-498\ boz ham badtar megardad. Az jumla, dar zamoni shoh Qubbod qahtii buzurge ba Eronzamin ruy ovarda bud. Sadho nafar az asari grusnagi jon mesuporidand, dar hole, ki zamindoron gallotro dar anborhoi khud pinhon namuda budand, to onro bo qimmati garon ba mardum bifrushand. Hej kas etinoe ba ranju mashaqqati fuqaro nadosht. In ast, ki mazdakiya dar avval hamchun talimoti diniyu akhloqi zuhur namuda, minbad ba shurishu isyoni vasei fuqaro tabdil yoft. Nahzati mazdakiya, az s. 493m. to 524 m. idoma dosht. Podshohi sosoni Kubbod dar avval majbur ba sozish kardan bo mazdakiyon shud.

YAke az khususiyathoi jomeai sosoni , iborat az on bud, ki muqarrarote misli sokhtori kastavii jomea dar on hukmron bud. Kasta, yane dar munosibathoi ijtimoii nobarobar, judoi, bastagi, yane gayri qobili nufuz az yake tabaqa ba tabaqai digar ast. Dar chunin sokhtor insonho az nasl ba nasl, to okhiri umr mahkum ba yak muhit va vazi ijtimoi, hatto ba yak shuglu martabai jamiyati buda, haqqi guzashtan ba digar tabaqa, imkoni dodu girift, izdivoj va g-ro nadoshtand.

In ast, ki az gustarishi shurishi payravoni Mazdak ashrofu ruhoniyon ba haros omada, bo vositai pisari Qubbod Husravi Anushervon bo hillae Mazdakro bo tamomi sarvaroni junbishash ba darbor davat namuda, hamai onhoro ba qatl merasonand. Vale in kushtori Mazdak va saroni junbishi mazdakiya natavonistaast in dinu jahonbini va harakati siyosiro bilkul az bayn barad. Mazdakiya tasiri amiqe dar tarikhi badii khalqhoi Osiyoi Markazi va Eron guzoshtaast.

Hamin ba tariqi fojiavi kushta shudani Moni, Mazdak va payravoni u guvohi medihad, ki dar jomeai sosonii Eroni boston ozodii aqida vujud nadoshtaast, balki baraks taassubi mazhabii sakhti mubadoni zardushti dar Eron hukmron budaast. In jo takid boyad kard, ki dar Osiyoi Markazi, ki jue az Eroni Buzurg buda, tarikhan sarzamini niyogoni most, baraksi Eroni Janubu Garbi ozodii aqida va adyon rioya meshuda, az in ru monaviyon va mazdakiyon az Eron firor karda, dar in jo panoh meyoftaand.

Dar okhir, nogufta namonad, ki mahz hamin sharoiti ijtimoiyu siyosii davrai sosoni: vaziyati asafbori tabaqai zahmatkash, tabizoti ijtimoiyu mazhabi, ba dini ashrofu ayon tabdil yoftani zardushtiya shikasti imperaturii shohanshohii Eronro dar muqobili hujumi nizomii arabho va shikasti zardushtiyaro dar barkhurd bo islom tamin kard.

Bo chunin vaziyat dar Osiyoi Markazi, dar surati ba miyon naomadani islom, khatari intishori sarosarii mazhabi nasturii dini nasroni va dar qismati janubii Tojikisto va Afgoniston dini buddoiya va hamchunin imkoni az otashi zeri khokistar az nav alanga giriftani shurishhoi mazdakiya va furu raftani qasri shohanshohii Eron yaqin bud.

Bad az barqaror gardidani dini islom niz mazdakiyon du se qarn vujud doshtand va nahzathoi mardumii Osiyoi Markazi alayhi khilofati arabro rahbari mekardand. Nihoyat dar khotima boyad guft, ki bo vujudi muqobiliyati shadidi khalqhoi eroni, alalkhusus, mardumi Movarounnahru Huroson chun usuli aqoidi islom bo dini asosii khalqhoi eroni- zardushtiyai ibtidoi va ormonhoi mazdakiya khele nazdik va metavon guft, sodda va ba shuuri tarikhii mazhabiyu dinii mardumi eronzamin oshno bud, on dar in sarzamin qabul va mondagor gardid.[2] Az in ru, harchand mardumi in sarzamin bad az du asr istiqloli milli va ehyoi farhangi ba dast ovardand, masalai bargasht ba dini qadimai khudro ba miyon naovardand.

[1]  Muhammad Iqboli Lohuri. Sayri falsafa dar Eron.- S. 16.

[2]      Nig. SH. Abdullozoda. Tashakkuli tamadduni islomii tojik dar ahdi Somoniyon.\\ Dar maj. Falsafa dar ahdi somoniyon. Dushanbe: Donish, 1999.-S. 141. Va hamchunin az u dar Maj. Farhangu farogat. Nash.1. Dushanbe: 1999.- S.11-30.

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