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TALIMOTI ZARDUSHTIYA

Dar mavridi nazariyai khudoshinosii diny Zardushtiya to hanuz ikhtilofi aqida joy dorad. YAke az khatogihoi maruf, aqida ba sanavi – dutoparast (dualist) budani Zardusht va zardushtiya meboshad.

Dar haqiqat talimoti Zardusht faqat az nazari akhloqiyot khususiyati sanavi– dugaroi doshta, na dar khudoshinosi (-ilohiyot). Hudoi zardusht yakest va on Ahuromazdo meboshad. Boyad guft, ki dar hamai dinho, tamomi mazhabho khub dar muqobili bad, khayr dar muqobili sharr qaror dorad. Hamon tavre, ki dar dini yahudiya, masehiyat va islom mafhumi shayton vujud dorad, biduni in, ki sanaviyate vujud doshta boshad, hamchunin dar dini zardushtiyamazdyaasno ahriman naqshi shaytonii khudro bozi mekunad,be in, ki kamtarin gazande ba Ahuramazdo birasonad. Ahriman taraf bo inson ast ba u metavonad zarar rasona, az rohi haqqu rost beroha kunad, na ba Ahuromazdo.

Hulosa dine, ki Zardusht – paygambari eroni poya guzosht, yak oini yaktoparasti \ tavhidi\ bud. Vay khudoi dini khudro «Ahuramazdo» yane khudoi hakim laqab dod.

Tavhidi budani dini zardushtiyaro hatto muarrikhoni din az musalmonon paziruftaand. Az jumla SHahristoni menavisad, ki yazdon«Boriuttaolo kholiqi nur va zulmat va ofaridgori onhost. Vay yaktost, sharike, zidde va hamtoe nadorad. Joiz nest, ki vujudi toriki-zulmatro, chunon ki zarvoniyon meguyand, ba u nisbat dihem. Ammo badiyu neki, salohu fasod, pokivu kasofat, hamono az omezishi rushnoi va toriki ba vujud omadaand, agar in omezish nabudi, olam niz ba vujud naomadi.». Ham chunin ovardaast, ki «Meguyad: rushnoi vujudi asli dorad, vujudi vay vujudi haqiqi ast, ammo vujudi toriki\ vujudi haqiqiyu voqei nest\ misoli on ba misoli soyaest , ki az pasi odam megardad. Vay mavjudi haqiqi nest. Bo ofaridani rushnoi taban zulmat hosil meshavad. CHunki tazzod zarurati vujud ast, na zarurat dar qasdi avval.»[1]

Davati Zardusht va dini u mahdud ba yak qavm yo millate nest, balki davat ba hamai insoniyat ast. Ahuramazdo tanho khudoi mardumi oriyoi yo eroni nest, balki khudoi olamiyon ast va risolati Zardusht niz risolati jahoni ast.

Ahuramazdo irodai khudro ba hamrohi ruhi muqaddas va nekunihod Spendtamainyu ( yo Spentamainu)[2] ba amal meovarad. Tanho dar hamin zina Angramainyu bo Spentamainiyu muqobil, tazzod ast. YAne sanaviyat tanho dar sathi olami minu- ruhoniyu manavi ast. Dar Hoti 30: 3-4 omadaast: «Dar ogoz on du «minu»-i hamzod va dar andeshavu guftoru kirdor \ yake\ nek va \digari\ bad , bo yakdigar sukhan guftand.

Az on du nekogahon rostiro barguzidand, na dujogohon.

Ongoh ki on du «minu» ba ham rasidand, nakhust «zindagy» va «nozindagy»- robunyod\ nihodandva chunin boshad ba poyonihasty:

« Behtarin manish», payravoni «asha»-ro va «badtarin zindagy», havodoroni «duruj»-ro khohad bud»33

Ammo Spentamainyu kirdugori ilohii khudro ba dastyorii arvohhoi muqaddase- Amshospandon ijro mekunad.

Farishtashinosi- angelologiyai zardushtiya. Namunai tahavvul va guzarish az bisyorkhudoy ba yakkhudoy yo khud az shirk ba tavhid, dar misoli dinhoi erony, munosibati Ahuramazdo bo Amshospandon shuda metavonad. In farishtagon, ki dar guzashta ( va hatto pas az Zardusht dar davrahoi bady niz) az jumlai khudoyoni mardumi oriyoyerony budaand, har yake dar Zardushtiya nomi khos va masuliyati muayyane dorand. Amshaspandon iboratand:

  • «Vahumana» /Bahman/- farishtai pindor va nihod /khirad/i nek ast, in nakhustin tajallii Ahuromazdo meboshad.
  • «Asho Vakhishto» /Urdubihisht/ – farishtai rosty va adolat, behtarin qonun va duvvumin tajally az Ahuromazdost. Vay ba surati moddy dar otash va nur (rushnoi) jilvagar ast.
  • «Hashtra-Varyo /SHahrivar/- irodai ilohy, neru va qudrati ilohist, ki tavassuti on zindagy tahaqquq mepazirad.

-«Spenta-Armayti» /Ispandoroz/- mahzari shafqat va lutf, furutany va taslimi komil dar barobari irodai ilohy, hamon javhari moddy meboshad.

-«Haurvatat» Hurdod/ farishtai rasoi va komravoi, mazhari tandurusti, kamol, borvary.

«Ameratat» /Amrdod/, ba manoi baqo va jovidoni va yo zamoni bepoyon ast.

Dar barobari amshospandon yoroni Ahuramazdo Ahriman niz yoroni badkirdore bo nomi «kamogaron» dorad, ki ba muqobili quvvahoi neki saf orostaand. Onho niz shash tanand: «Akmana», «Andro», «Saurva», «Nanghaysya», «Taurva», «Zaurash» ba tartib sifathoi andeshai bad, durugu riyo, khashm, bukhl-bakhily, faqru gurusnagiro ifoda mekunad.

Dar talimoti Zardusht mo namunai bostonii afkori falsafiyu dinii khalqhii eroninajodro dorem. In jo Vahumana behtarin khirad yo ba qavli falosifai islom «khiradi jahoni» ast. «Asho»[3] [4] -rostiyu nazmu tartibi mazdoi va yo neru- energiyai zindagi- «Ruh yo Joni jahoni» ast. Hashtravaryo yo qudrati ilohi, irodai ilohi ast, ki zarfi on Armayti va yo khud moddai avvaliya, ki ba aqli jahon oshkor gardidaast.

In chahor neru dush ba dush, bo hamohangi ba faoliyat mepardozand to ba vasilai Haurvartot – makoni be poyon va Ameratat—zamoni bepoyon ba hadafi khud, ki tajalli ast, birasand.

Zardushtiya yake az avvalin dinest, ki ba maqomi paygambari diqqati makhsus dodaast. Zardusht khudro paygambari firistodashudamursal az tarafi Ahuramazdo shinosoi karda va dar «Gotho» takid namud, ki khudovand uro mamur sokhta va to behtarin din va rohi rostro ba mardum nishon dihad.

«Hrn ey mardum!

CHun shumo khud rohi rostro natavoned did va barguzid, Mazdoahuro maro dovari har du guruh(mazdoparaston va devparaston) barangekhtu ba sui shumo firistod, to rohi rostro ba shumo binamoyam va hama bo ham zindagiro bar poyai dini rostin ba sar barem.

Mazdoahuro khud maro meshinosad va guvohi durustii oini man ast.» \ Av.YAs.Hot.31:2\

[1]     SHahristoni, Al -Milal van-nihal. J.1.-S 237-.238

[2]  Spendtamainu- dar Avasto- Gohon ba manii minu (ruhi)-i Mazdo Ahuro -ofaridgori jahon va bartarin firuzai ust; ammo dar Avastoi nav tajassumi shakhsiyatyofta va murodifi nomi Ahuromazdo shudaast va goho ba joi on meoyad.( vojanomai Avasto: kuhnatarin surudahoi eroniyon, guzorish va pajuhishi Jalili Dustkhoh. S.1003.

  • Avasto: kuhnatarin surudahoi eroniyon. Guzorish va pajuhishi Jalil Dustkhoh. -S. 14-15.

[4] Asha- rosti, haqq, haqiqat, dodgari, somoni ofoq,, qonuni abadii ofarinish, nazmu tartibi komil, nazmu tartibi mazdoi va digar tabirho niz kardaand, vale tarifi komilu qatii onro hanuz kase nadodaast.

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