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TARIHI DIN HAMCHUN ILM

Tarikhi din yake az qismati ilmi dinshinosi ast. Dinshinosi az jumlai ilmhoi jomeashinosi va falsafiyu tarikhi ast. Mavzui bahsi on na din va masoili falsafiyu nazari va tarikhi paydoishu tahavvul va takomuli dinho meboshad. Obekti on na yak dini khos balki tamomi dinhoe meboshad, ki insoniyat dar tarikhi khud doshtaast va shinokhtaast.1

400px-faravahar-svgDinshinosii ilmi ( yo ilmi adyon) hamchun ilmu fanni mustaqilu alohidae, dar nimai duyumi a.H1H ba qatori ilmhoi jomeashinosi vorid gardid. To in davra masoili dinshinosi zimni bahsi matolibi ilmhoi digar, alalkhusus tarikh, falsafa va ilohiyot[1] [2] mavridi bahsu barrasi qaror girifta budand.

Nakhustin bor Maks Myuller mafhumi ”ilmi adyon” va ”mutolioti muqoisavii din”-ro ba kor burdaast. Tarikhi dinho niz dar donishgohho az hamin davra (okhiri asri XIX ) ogoz gardid. Nakhustin kafedrai talimu tahqiqi tarikhi din soli 1873 dar Jeneva tasis gardid va sipas chahor chunin kafedra soli 1876 dar Huland va soli 1879 dar « Kolej de-Frons» va soli 1884 dar donishgohi ozodi Bryuksel va soli 1885 bakhshi makhsusi ilmhoi dini dar donishgohi « Sorbon» tashkil shudand. Kame badtar dar soli 1910 kafedrai dinho dar donishgohi Berlin va hamchunin dar Leyptsig va Bonn ba vujud omad.

Az hamin davra sar karda, hamzamon bo talim va tahqiqoti ilmi kori tabu nashri kitobu risolaho va majalloti sohai dinshinosi vusat meyobad.

Dar okhiri asri XIX avvalin nashriyahoi davragiyu doimii dinshinosi dar kishvarhoi avrupoi ba vujud omadand. Az jumla soli 1880 nashriyai « Barrasii tarikhi adyon» dar Porij, soli 1898 nashriyai «Boygonii* tarikhi adyon» dar Frayburg va soli 1905 nashriyai «Inson», ki beshtar ba omuzishi dinhoi ibtidoi mashgul bud, dar Vena tavassuti Vilgelm SHmidt tasis shud va soli 1925 nashriyai «Mutoliot dar bobi tarikhi adyon» tavassuti Rafael Patazoni ba nashr shuru namud. Badan az ibtidoi asri XX to nimai on dar donishgohhoi avrupoi va amrikoi nashriyahoi ziyode dar barrasii tarikhi adyon ba vujud omadand.

Dar in davra intishori manobe va makhazho niz ru ba afzoish menihad. Az jumla «Doirat-ul- maorifi din va akhloq» ( dar 13 jild, Eydengburg, 1908-1923, virostai J. Hasting-.1.1 ishd); “Ilohiyot va tarikhi adyon” ( dar 5 jild az s.1909 to s.1913), “Tarikhi adyon” (virostai A. Bertolet -(A.Veg1Io1e1) solhoi 1908, 1926) “Kitobi darsy dar bobi tarikhi adyon” virostai E. Lahman (E .Eatap) dar Leyptsig s.1912) va badan tavassuti E. Lahman va H. Hoss ( N. Nazz) kitobi «Manobei tarikhi adyon nazdi muallifoni buzurgi lotini» (Bonn s.1920) va hamchunin tavassuti H. Hoss va digaron «Atlasi adyoni jahon» (Leyptsg s.1924) va yak qator adabiyothoi ilmiyu tadrisii digar ba tab rasidand.

Boyad guft, ki dar Rossiya niz, chi pesh az inqilob va chi pas az on, ba omuzishi din tavajjuhi khose shudaast. Az jumla osori dinshinoson: S.A. Tokarev,[3] [4] L. S. Vasilev,[5] I. A. Krivelev,[6] Ugrinovich D.M.[7]; islomshinoson: Bartold V.V.[8], Krimskiy A.E.[9] Petrushevskiy I.P[10]., .G.Bolshakov[11] dar gani gardidani ilmi dinshinosi va islomshinosi sahmi ziyod dorand. Alalkhusus dar solhoi okhir kitobhoe zeri tahrir va talifi I.N. YAblokov,[12] Garadji V.I.[13], A.A. Radugin[14] yak qator kitobhoi darsii dinshinosi ba tab rasidand, ki qadamhoi tozae dar dinshinosii muosir meboshand.

Nogufta namonad, ki muhaqiqoni tojik: M. Dinorshoev, M. Hazratqulov, K. Olimov, A. Muhammadkhojaev, H. Dodkhudoev, M. Sultonov, I. Saidov va muallifi in satrho dar omuzishi tarikh va falsafai dinho, az jumla dar omukhtani masoili tarikhi va talimoti islom, raviyavu maktabhoi falsafai on, korhoi ziyode anjom doda, sahmi arzandae guzoshtand.

Hamin tavr, chunon ki mulohiza meshavad, ilmi dinshinosi ziyoda du sad sol ast, ki dar maktabu donishgohho tadris va dar doirahoi ilmiyu tahqiqoti bahsu barrasi, tabu nashr va intishor doda meshavad

Ammo, tarikhi dinho (adyon) -yake az qismathoi asosii dinshinosi meboshad, ki dinhoro az doirai muhiti zamoni va makonii paydoish va tahavvul va takomuli tarikhiashon tahqiqu barrasi mekunad. Tarikhi adyon sharoiti tarikhii paydoishi dinhoi mukhtalif va tahavvul, yane takomul va tagyiryobii muntazamu doimii goyaviyu aqidavi va marosimii onhoro dar tamomi tuli tarikhi insoniyat meomuzad. Tarikhi adyon manzarai komilu yaklukht, nimoishi paydarhami sahnahoi paydoish, tahavvul va takomuli dinho va hamzamon ravandi rushdi tarikhii shuuri dinii insoniyat ast.

Donishi hamatarafa az tarikhi dinho va ogahi az hama adyoni bashar baroi shinokhti amiqi din umuman va dini khudi mo islom khosatan, hamchun yak nav padidai manaviyu ijtimoi khele zarur ast ast. Guzashta az in ogahi va shinokhti asotir va adyon ba shinokhti amiq va durusti farhangi guzashta va vaziyati farhangiyu ravonii hozirai har yak millat hatmist. Dar in kitob muallif baroi ejodi yak manzara (panorama)-i komili tarikhi adyon kushish namudaast, ki haddi aqal oid ba tamomi adyoni zinda va az bayn rafta (solifa[15]) malumot dihad.

1 Mufassal dar borai ilmi dinshinosi nigared ba kitobi in jonib bo nomi «Asoshoi dinshinosi». Dushanbe: Donish.2001

[2] ilohiyot- ilmi dini- khudoshinosist

3 * boygoni- arkhiv

[4] S.A. Tokarev. Rannie formi religii. M.: 1990 va hamchunin «Religii v istorii narodov mira»,

[5]  L.S. Vasilev. Istoriya religii Vostoka. Uch.pos. M.: 1983

[6] I.A. Krivelev. Istoriya religiy. M.,1976, T. 1-2.

[7] D.M. Ugrinovich. Vvedenie v teoreticheskoe religiovedenie M., 1973 va g-ra

[8]   V.V. Bartold. Sochineniya. T. 6. M.1966.

[9]    A.E. Krimskiy. Istoriya musulmanskikh narodov. CH.1- 2. M. 1902- 1903.(nash.2.- !912-1913)

[10] I.P. Petrushevskiy. Islam v Irane v U11-HU vekakh.( kurs leksiy). L., 1966.

[11] O.G. Bolshakov. Istoriya khalifata. K.1. Islam v Aravii 570-633. M.,1989.

[12] Az jumla: Osnovi Religiovedeniya.Ucheb./ YU.F. Borunkov, I.N. YAblokov, K.I.Nikonov i dr.; Pod red. I.N. YAblokova.-2-e izd., M.:Vissh.shk., 1998. va I.N. YAblokov. Religiovelenie. Ucheb.pos. i uchebniy slovar- minimum po religiovedeniyu/ pod red prof. I.N. YAblokova.-M.: Gardarika, 1995.

[13] Garadja V.I. Religiovedenie. M.,1995. va ham u Sosiologiya religii.,1996.

[14] A.A. Radugin. Vvedenie v religiovedenie: teoriya, istoriya i sovremennie religii. Kurs leksii .-M: Sentr, 1999.

15 solifa- ar. az bayn rafta, guzashta

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

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