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TOJIKISTON DAVLATI SOHIBISTIKLOL

Tochikiston bo khususiyathoi ba khud khos dar bayni chumhurihoi davlati SHuravi fark mekard. Boyad ibroz dosht, ki dar jumhuri charayoni baroi ozodi muborizabaranda vuchud nadosht. Dar chamiyati sotsialisti baroi paydoishi chunin kuvvaho zamina ham nabud. CHunin harakatho tanho pas az bozsozii Gorbachevi paydo shudan giriftand. Ammo in kuvvaho baroi guzaronidani tagiroti kuli tayyor nabudand, chunone, ki dar jumhurihoi nazdi Baltika, Ukraina, Gurchiton, Armaniston dida meshud, dar Tochikiston chunin ashkhosi muayyan ba nazar namerasid.
Dar Osiyoi Miyona nisbat ba digar jumhuriho millati bedortar va khudshinokhta CHumhurii Uzbekiston bud. Rohbari chumhuri SH.Rashidov dar tuli solhoi daroz bo siyosati khud tavonist, ki ba rohbariyati markaz nazdik shuda, iktidori iktisodii jumhuriro baland bardosht.
Tochikiston chumhurii az hama khomush va gapdaro bud. Har on ikdome, ki az markaz guzaronida meshud, dar Tochikiston darrav amali megasht.
Az in sabab harakathoi ozodandeshi dar Tochikiston dar zeri tasiri ravandhoi ozodfikrii Russiya va digar jumhuriho ba vuchud omad. Baroi hamin dar Tochikiston bar khilofi jumhurihoi digar ananahoi demokrati vuchud nadoshtand.
Avvalin harakathoi ozodandeshi dar Tochikiston 22- fevrali soli 1989 dar mavzui mavqei zaboni forsi tochiki va ananahoi milli ba vuchud omad. Girdihamomadagoni sh.Dushanbe talab menamudand, ki ba zaboni tochiki maqomi davlati doda shavad. CHunin chamomadho dar digar shahru navohii Tochikiston niz shuda guzashtand. Dar naticha sesiyai SHuroi Olii Tochikiston 22-iyuli soli 1989 qonuni zabonro qabul namud.
Dar davrai tayyori ba intikhoboti SHuroi Olii ICHSHS bahori soli 1989 chomearo harakati ozodikhokhi faro girift. Bori avval baroi giriftani mandati vakili bayni chandin nafar nomzadho muboriza sar shud. Kuvvahoi bo nom demokrati dar atrofi nomzadii khabarnigori machallai «Pravda» O-Latifi muttahid gashtand.
Dar ayni shu khurushhoi siyosi dar shahru nohiyahoi chumhuri sozmonhoi mardumi tashkil yoftand.
CHunin sozmonho dar Uroteppa va Konibodom ba nomi «Vahdat», dar Kulob bo nomi «Oshkoro» va dar sh.Dushanbe az mohi fevrali soli 1989 bo nomi «Marifat» sozmon doda shudand.
Mohi may soli 1989 mahfili siyosii «Ru ba ru» tashkil yoft. In mahfil dar shahrhoi Norak, Kulob, Kofarnihonu Asht va digar nohiyahoi chumhuri filialhoi khudro dosht. Onho hadafi asosii khudro muhokima va halli problemahoi iktisodi, farhangi va siyosi karor dodand. Boyad zikr kard, ki az sababi past budani madaniyati siyosi rafti muhokimaroniho azoyoni in mahfil ba yagon khulosai umumi omada natavonistand. Az tarafi digar dar in mahfilho hangomatalabon shirkat karda bahsro ba niqobgiri tabdil medodand.
Boyad qayd kard, ki az sababi past budani madaniyati siyosi, mavchud nabudan umumiyati ichtimoi, hayoti yagonai iktisodi, baland budani hissiyoti mahalgaroi va omilhoi digar tamomi in sozmonhoi ba nom mardumi va azhobhoi digare, ki badtar tashkil yoftand ba choi behbudi dar chumhuri mardumro ba qavmu kaboil dar asosi mahalho taqsim kardand, ki in boisi sar zadanii changi shahrvandi gasht.
Zamoni bozsozi dar jumhuri hizbu chunbishho tashkil yoftand. Avvalin chunbish bo nomi «Rastokhez» 15-sentyabri soli 1989 tashkil yoft.
Oyinnoma va barnomai «Rastokhez» kabul gardid, ki dar on ba fikri sozmondihandagoni on rohhoi az buhroni siyosi va iqtisodi baromadan nishon doda shuda bud. CHunonchi muboriza ba muqobili sistemai mavchuda (byurokratii mamuri, farmondihi), konsepsiyai Mustakiliyati iktisodi, tashkil namudani khazinai arzhoi jumkhuri, bonki milli va gayra dar nazar doshta shud.
Sozmoni «Rastokhez» dar intikhoboti SHuroi Olii Tojikiston, faolona ishtirok namuda, baroi hokimiyat muboriza meburd. Lekin chi tavre, ki badtar malum shud sozmoni «Rastokhez» dar hodisahoi khunini jumhuri shirkat dosht va dar nazdi intikhobkunandagon maqsadhoi nihoni on ravshan gardid.
12-fevrali soli 1990 dar poytakhti jumkhuri dar binoi KM HK Tojikiston chandsad nafar jam omada, nisbati kabul kardani gurezahoi armani etiroz bayon kardand. Badtar dar rafti girdihamoi ba betartibi va oratu otashzani dast zadand.
In avvalin hodisai nokhush dar jumkhuri bud, ki az tarafi kuvvahoi irtijoi dastgiri yoft.
Ravandhoi digargunsozi dar digar jumkhurihoi ba hayoti siyosii Tojikiston be tasir namond. Mokhi apreli soli 1990 SHuroi Oli konun dar borai bekor kardani maqomi rohbarikunandai khizbi kommunisti dar sistemai siyosii jumkhuri kabul namud.
Badtar SHuroi Olii Tojikiston du konun dar borai ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va vositahoi akhbori umumro kabul kard.
Muvofiki onho dar jumkhuri sozmonu khizbhoi siyosii gunogun dar doirai konuni asosii jumkhuri amal karda metavonistand.
Hamchunin shakhsoni alokhida metavonistand ruznomaho barorand va az digar sistemahoi akhbori umum istifoda barand.
CHi tavre, ki malum ast, Tojikiston dar 74-soli mavjudiyati ittihodi SHuravi yak kismi tarkibii in davlat bud va dar jumhuri sistemai yak khizbi jori bud. Dar avali solhoi 90-umi karni HH dar jumkhuri daho khizbhoi siyosi paydo shudand.
Dar tashakkuli sistemai bisyorkhizbi qonuni CHumkhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai ittihodiyahoi jamiyati dar Tojikiston» va «Dar borai khizbhoi siyosi» (dekabri soli 1990) musoidat namud.
Dar jumkhuri pas az guzashtani mavchi khizbsozikho marakai tashkil namudani sozmonkhoi gunogun khususiyati makhali doshta vusat yoft. Tashabuskori tashkil shudani chunin sozmonkho asosan onkhoe budand, ki dar vaqtash az mansab dur shuda budand. Az in ru onkho mekhostand, ki ba sozmonkhoi makhali khud takya karda, ba arsai siyosat baroyand. Avvalin shuda sozmonkhoi chamiyati siyosii «Lali Badakhshon» va «Mekhri Hatlon» tashkil yoftand. Dar davomi solkhoi 1991-1992 boz sozmoni <(Hamdilon»-i sokinoni viloyati Leninobodro faro girift. CHunin sozmonkho bayni akholii vodii Karotegin, Istaravshan, Zarafshon niz tashkil yoftand. Tashkil yoftani in sozmonkho, ki dar asosi prinsipi makhalgaroi asos yofta bud ba vakhdati milli musoidat nakardand. Balki chudoiandoziyu makhalgaroiro ba vuchud ovarda, sababgori changi dokhili shudand.
Mutaasifona, dar chunin sharoiti baroi chumkhuri khassos kormandoni davlati va kuvvakhoi nizomi niz ba choi khimoyai manfiatkhoi umumi milli ba gurukhkhoi makhali-qavmi avlodi taqsim shuda, mardumi kishvarro ba du langari muqobil chudo kardand.
Sistemai bisyor khizbi dar mamlakatkhoe tashakul meyobad, ki dar on cho shaklkhoi gunoguni molikiyat va gunogunandeshi ziyodtar inkishof yoftaast. Zero khislati mukhimtarini khizbkho az digar tashkilotkhoi ommavi dar on ast, ki strukturai tashkili dorad va prinsipu maqsadkhoi oshkoro dar barnoma va oinnomakhoyashon anik muayyan karda shudaast. YAne khizb in tashkiloti siyosii gayri davlatii gurukhi odamon buda, maqsadi asosii on muboriza baroi ba dast ovardani khokimiyati siyosi meboshad. Hizbkho baroi amali namudani maqsadkhoi khud panch, vazifaro ichro mekunand: Ichtimoi, ideologi, siyosi, idorakuni va elektorali (intikhobkunanda).
Hizbkho az chikhati kharakteri khud ba khizbkhoi kadri va ommavi, az rui raftor dar chomea ba demokrati, totalitari, az rui maqom dar sistemai siyosi ba khizbkhoi khukmron, mukholifin, az rui akida va kharakteri inkishofi chomea ba khizbkhoi evolyutsioni, islokhotchigi, inkilobi, radikali, az rui raviya ideologiya ba khizbkhoi rost (konservativi, liberali) va gap (sotsialisti, kommunisti va gayra) taqsim meshavand.
Nisbati khizbhoi digar khizbhoi radikali khususiyati khos dorand. Farqiyati khizbhoi radikali dar on ast, ki onkho guzarondani tagyiroti kulliro dar tamomi sohahoi hayyoti chamiyati pesh megirand. Baroi amali gardonidani vazifahoi dar pesh istoda az tamomi vositaho ba monandi suiqasd, kushtor, repressiya, tarkish, sukhtor, garavgongirii odamon va ayra istifoda mebarand. In hizbho vaziyatro tezu tund gardonda bo shiori «kase bo mo nest vay ziddi most» amal mekunand.
Paydoish va inkishofi hibhoi siyosii Tochikitson az solhoi 90-um sar shuda du davraro dar bar megirad:
⦁ In davra badi Anchumani III-deputathoi khalkii Ittihodi SHuravi (marti soli 1990), ki moddai 6-umi Konstitutsiyai Ittihodi SHuravi dar borai roli peshbarandagii khizbi kommunistii Ittihodi SHuravi bekor karda shud, sar meshavad. Dar in davra avvalin khizb, khizbi demokratii Tochikiston 10-avguti soli 1990 tasis yoft, ki onro Vazorati adliyai CHumkhurii SHuravii Tochikiston 21- iyun ba qayd girift. Azbaski dar hodisahoi solhoi changi shakhrvandi sharik budani khizbi Demokratii Tochikiston isbot shud, bo qarori Sudi Olii Jumkhurii Tochikiston az 21-iyuni soli 1993 faoliyati on qat gardid. Mokhi iyuni soli 1993 dar Afoniston Ittihodiyai muttakhidai mukholifin tashkil karda shud, ki khizbi demokratii Tochikiston va khizbi nahzati islom ba on dokhil shudand.
Hizbi Nahzati Islom 6-oktyabri soli 1990 ba sifati shubai khizbi umumiittifokii nahzati Islom tashkil karda shud. Badi ba dast omadani istiqloliyati milli Tochikiston vazorati adliyai Tochikiston Hizbi Nahzati Islomro hamchun tashkiloti jumhuriyavi 4-dekabri soli 1991 ba kayd girift.
⦁ Davrai duyumi hizbhoi siyosi dar Tochikiston az soli 1993 sar shud. Mokhi iyuni soli 1993 Prezidiumi sudi olii CHumkhurii Tochikiston faoliyati khizbi Nahzati Islomro baroi vayron kardani Konstitutsiya va qonun dar borai Ittihodiyahoi chamiyati man kard. Vale 12-avguti soli 1999 Prezidiumi sudi Olii CHumhurii Tochikiston in qarorro bekor namuda, hizbi Nahzati Islom az nav ba faoliyat sar kard.
Hizbi Kommunisti Tochikiston yak qismi tarkibii hizbi Kommunistii Ittihodi SHuravi bud. Azbaski dar Russiya badi voqeahoi avgusti (GKCHP) faoliyati hizbi kommunisti qat gardid. 4-sentyabri soli 1991 bo qarori plenumi Komiteti Markazii hizbi Kommunistii Tochikiston, az hayati HKICHSH baromada, hizbi mustaqil elon karda shud.
Vazorati adliyai CHumhurii Tochikiston 17-marti soli 1992 hizbi Kommunistii Tochikistonro ba qayd girift.
Badi sessiyai XVI SHuroi Olii CHumhurii Tochikiston dar jumhuri yak qator hizbhoi siyosi tashkil yoftand.
Avvali soli 1993 hizbi Halqii Tochikiston tashkil yoft. Az mohi iyuli soli 1997 in hizbi Halqi Demokratii Tochikiston nom girift. Mohi noyabri soli 1995 hizbi Adolatkhohi Tochikiston tashkil yoft. Mohi iyuni soli 1996 boshad, hizbi Sotsialistii Tochikiston tasis karda shud.
Mohi dekabri soli 1994 dar shahri Alma-Ato anchumani favqulloda hizbi Demokrati barguzor gardid. Dar natichai ikhtilofhoi dokhili hizb, qanoti chapi hizb mavqei oyandai hizbro muayyan karda tashkilyobii hizbro elon namud. Mohi iyuli soli 1995 Vazorati adliyai 4,umhurii Tochikiston onro ba qayd girift.
Soli 1998 (mohi noyabr) «Dar borai hizbhoi siyosi» qonuni navi CHumhurii Tochikiston qabul karda shud, ki dar inkishofi minbadai faoliyati hizbho naqshi muayyan bozid. Muvofiqi in qonun har yak hizb huquq dorad nomzadhoro dar intikhobot ba maqomi Prezidenti CHumhuri va maqomoti namoyandagi peshbari namoyad, dar ittihodiyaho ishtirok namoyand, dar borai khud malumot intishor namuda maqsadu vazifahoi khudro tashviqu targib namoyand, vositahoi akhbori ommaro istifoda barand, nashriyai khudro sozmon dihand, muvofiqi (dar doirai) qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston majlisu girdihamoi va namoishho guzaronand.
Hizbhoi siyosii Tochikston az rui raviyayu maqsadhoi barnomavii khud ba se guruh yo raviya taqsim meshavand:
⦁ Hizbhoe, ki bo shiorhoi liberalivu demokrati baromad mekunand va chomearo ba sui demokratiya va iktisodi bozorgoni hidoyat mekunand:
⦁ Hizbho va kuvvahoi siyosi, ki tarafdori sokhti islomi meboshand:
⦁ Hizbhoi tamoyuli chap doshta, tarafdori barqaror namudani arzishhoi sotsialisti meboshand.
Hamai hizbho kushish dorand, ki dar intikhoboti parlament ishtirok namuda, barnomai khudro amali sozand.
Dar intikhobot ba machlisi namoyandagon va machlishoi mahali, ki soli 2000 barguzor gardidand, az tarafi hizbhoi siyosi kushish karda shud, ki nomzadho ba maqomoti namoyandagi muvofiki ruykhati azhobi siyosi va khudpeshbari karda meshudand. CHunin tarzi ishtiroki azhobi siyosi dar marakai intikhoboti dar qonunhoi Konstitutsionii CHumhurii Tochikiston «Dar borai intikhoboti vakilon ba machlishoi mahali vakiloni khalk konuni karda shudand».
Dar intikhoboti soli 2005 az 63 vakili machlisi namoyandagon 22 nafar az ruykhati hizbhoi siyosi peshnihod shudand. Muvofiki chambasti natichai intikhobot az shash hizb, tanho hizbhoi Halki Demokrati, Kommunisti va Nahzati Islom moneai panch, foizaro guzashta tavonistand. Hizbi Halki Demokrati 74,9, hizbi Kommunisti -13,64 va Hizbi Nahzati Islom-8,9 foizi ovozhoi intikhob kunandagonro sohib shudand.
Hizbhoi Demokratii Sotsialisti va Demokrati dar parlament namoyanda nadorand.

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