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Tafovuti matlakho

Az nazari jumhuri ahli ilm, az jumla imom Abuhanifa (rh),
imom Molik (rh) va imom Ahmad (rh) vakte hiloli mohi Ramazon dar
sarzamine dida shud, ruza bar tamomi musalmonon dar sar to sari
olam vojib megardad, zero rui khitob dar farmoishi Rasuli akram (s):
Bo»
didani on (dar avvali mohi shavvol) iftor namoed» ba sui tamomi mu-
salmonon ast. Tafovute, ki dar matla (mohtobbaro)-i yak sarzamin bo
tulugohi sarzamin va mintakai digar vuchud dorad, dar in hukm ta-
sire nadorad. Zero bo tafovuti chandsoatae, ki dar miyoni matlaho
vuchud dorad, dar kursi moh va guzarishi shabu ruz tasiri jiddie ba
vuchud nameoyad.  
Nazari digare dar in mavrid niz vujud dorad, ki on az didgohi
fikhii imom SHofey (rh) va muvofikonash iborat ast va dar on ta-
fovuti matlaho ba etibor girifta shudaast. Az nazari inho vakte
hiloli mohi Ramazon dar sarzamine dida shud, ruza tanho bar ahli on
sarzamin va mardumi sokini manotiki hamjavori on vojib megar-
dad. Zero az Kurayb rivoyat shudaast, ki Ummulfazl binti Horis
uro ba nazdi Muoviya dar SHom firistod. Vay meguyad: «Ba SHom raf-
tam va kori uro \ dodam. Pas ؛on bar ■ dar !Pom faro
rasid va hilol (-i mohi Ramazonro) dar shabi chuma didam, a az on
dar okhiri ■ ba Madina barga«41ggal1. Abdulloh ibni Abbos (r) az ■
.1
Guftg: Tu didy? Guftam.: Ore, va mardum ham va r a
doshtand va m oviya (ham) r guftg: Lekin myu
onro shabi shanbe didem va hanuz ruza medorem to on ki si ruzro komil
gardonem va yo boz mohi bibinem. Guftam.: Oyo byu didani m oviya
iktifo namekuny? Guftg: Ne, Rasu li Hudo (s) ba myu hamin tavr amr
kardaast».
Harchand az nazari jumhuri ahli ilm tamomi matlaho dar subuti
hiloli mohi Ramazon yak matlai umumy ba shumor ravand ham, didgohi
duyum niz khele kavy va bar asosi daleli shary bino yoftaast. Binobar
in, hayati kibori ulamoi mamlakati Saudy hej kadomi onhoro bar
yakdigar tarjeh nadoda, baroi har kishvari islomy va sarzaminhoi
hamjavori on hakki intikhobi yake az du nazari fikdaro koil shudaast,
yane ulamoi har kishvar metavonand bo yake az du didgohi fikhi dar
borai matlaho, ki ba sharoiti ijtimoy va jugrofiyoii khosi khudashon
munosibtar boshad, amal namoyand.
Nazari jumhur dar in mavrid behtar ba nazar merasad, zero vah-
dati dar matlaho, ki vahdati dar ruza va dar idro ba vujud meova-
rad, sababi vahdat va hambastagii musalmonon megardad. Binobar in,
Majlisi Majmai fikhi islomy dar nishasti seyumi khud dar shahri
Ammon – poytakhti kishvari Urdun, ki dar tarikhi 8-13 mohi safari
soli 1407 h. mutobiq ba 11-16 oktyabri soli 1986 m. barguzor gardid,
pas az barrasii du masala dar qaziyai yakporchasozii oozi mohhoi ka-
mary: a) hajmi tasiri ikhtilofi matlaho dar vahdati ogozi mohho
va b) hukmi isboti avvali mohhoi kamary ba vasilai hisobi astro-
nomy qarori zerinro ba tasvib rasond: 
YAkum, vaqte ruyati moh dar kishvare sobit gardid, bar hamai mu-
salmonon vojib ast, ki ba on amal namoyand. Tafovuti matlaho eti-
bore nadorad. Zero rui khitob dar amri ba ruza va iftor bo didani
moh ba sui umumi musalmonon ast.
Duyum, on boyad tanho ba tariqi ruyat sobit shavad, vale ba khoti-
ri rioyai ahodisi nabavi va haqoiqi ilmi az khisoby astronomi va ra-
sadho dar didani on kumak girifta shavad.
Vale chun masala az jumlai masoili ikhtilofi ast, pas ahli har
sarzamine metavonad ba yake az onho amal namoyad va kase ham sharan
haqqi sarzanishi onhoro nadorad.
Didgohi digare niz dar in masala vujud dorad, ki qoil ba in
mavqe ast: Agar matlahoi sarzaminhoi gunogun va mintaqahoi ham-
javor dar tulu arzi jugrofiyoii khud ba ham nazdik boshand, pas mat-
lai yake az onho matlai digaron niz ba shumor meravad, vale agar dar
miyoni onho tafovute ba andozai fosilai bayni qitai Osiyo va Amri-
ko vujud doshta boshad, pas metavon matlahoi onhoro gunogun eti-
bor kard. Zero fosilai zamonie, ki matlai in du mintaqaro az ham
judo mesozad, hududi duvozdah soat, yane nim shabonaruzro tashkil
medihad. Ammo in didgoh ba erodhoi ilmie ru ba ru shuda, hanuz az
mavqei fiqhii munosibe barkhurdor nagashtaast.

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