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Tahlili muqoisavii jumlai payravi purkunanda va khabar dar zabonhoi anglisi va tojiki

Az in qoida va tahlilu tabdilho fahmidan dushvor ast, ki oyo hamai jumlahoi payravi purkunanda ba iborai masdari tabdil yofta metavonand yo ne. Agar badal nashavand pas ka- dom kheli onho ba ibora tabdil meshavandu kadomashon ne? In savolho dar sintaksisi maktabhoi oli be javob mondaand. Azbaski muallif hangomi tabdildihii jumlai payravi purkunanda ba iborai masdari dar nazdi khud chunin savol naguzoshtaast.

Jumlai ravonu suftan ba iborai muglaqi zerin tabdil doda shu- daast, ki boisi az bayn raftani latofatu nazokati jumla gardidaast:

“I could not imagine how as many people would greet him.”

656959Hudi hamin jumlai shaklan vayron nishon medihad, ki na hamai jumlahoi payravi purkunanda ba iborai masdari tabdil yofta me- tavonand. Okhir jumla az ibora, hatto az iborahoi sinonimi ham, ba kulli farq mekunad. Vay in va yo on fikrro bo hamai tobishhoyash ifoda mekunad, ki iboraho az uhdai in vazifai sintaksisii jumla baromada nametavonand.

Boyad zikr kard, ki aksariyati jumlahoi payravi purkunanda va ibo- rai masdari sinonimi yakdigar meboshand, onhoro dar har du shakl ham ifoda kardan mumkin ast. Ammo baze jumlahoi payravro ba ibora
tabdil dodan mumkin nest, chunki hamai nozukihoi mani va tobishhoi jumlaro bo ibora ifoda kardan nomumkin ast. Masalan agar khaba- ri sarjumla zamoni guzashta va hoziraro fahmonadu khabari jumlai payrav zamoni oyandaro, onro ba ibora ivaz kardan gayri imkon ast.

Aksariyati jumlahoi payrave, ki dar shakli jumlai savoli voqe gardidaand va yo dar tarkibashon kalimahoi modali dorand, inchunin jumlahoi payrave, ki tobishhoi gunoguni manoi dorandu hangomi tabdildihii in tobishho barham mekhurand, ba iborahoi masdari sino- nim shuda nametavonand va onhoro ba ibora tabdil dodan imkonpazir nest.

Dar borai joyi jumlai payravi purkunanda ham tanho gufta shu- daast: “Jumlahoi payravi purkunanda asosan bad az sarjumlahoi, yane dar joi duyum meoyand”.

Ammo misolho nishon medihand, ki jumlai payravi purkunanda na tanho pas az sarjumla, balki dar mobayni azohoi sarjumla va hatto pesh az sarjumla ham omada metavonad.

Mo dar borai chi tarz va ba kadom daraja malumot doda shudani jumlai payravi purkunanda dar “Ocherkho”, ki ba qalami akademik B.N. Niyozmuhammadov taalluq dorad, chize naguftem, chunki hamai on chi ki dar kitobi darsii maktabi oli darj yoftaast, bo misolhoyash aynan az hamin kitob girifta shudaast.

V.S. Rastorgueva semantika va tobishhoi manoii shaklhoi fe- lhoi zaboni anglisivu tojiki va mavqei tarzi istemoli onhoro muayyan karda, ziyoda az 15 kheli manoii aoristro, ki dar jumlai payravi purkunanda istemol yoftand, ki az rui semantikai felhoi sarjumla bayon mekunad.

V.S. Rastorgueva dar barobari in qayd menamoyad, ki kharakteri zamoni aoroist dar jumlahoi payravi purkunanda to yak andoza khira meshavad va vazifai nishon dodani zamoni voqe gardidani amal to yak andoza ba zimmai feli sarjumla, ki aroist tobei vay ast, me- guzarad. Az in ru, dar jumlai payravi purkunanda pas az sigai amri va yo shaklhoi zamoni hozirayu oyanda zamoni oyandaro ifoda mekunad, vale pas az felhoi zamoni guzashta amalero ifoda mekunad, ki pas amali feli asosi voqe gardidaast, yo bo u dar yak zamon ba amal oma- daast. SHaklhoi digari sigai khohishmandi zamoni guzashta, hozira va
oyandaro niz ifoda menamoyad. Dar jumlahoi payravi purkunandae, ki khabarashon bo sigai khabari ifoda yoftaast, tobishi zamoni onho khele ravshan zohir megardad, chunki in guna jumlahoi payravi purkunanda hej guna tobishhoi manoi nadorand va dar onho haqiqati voqei dar yake zamonho ifoda meyobad.

  • Zamoni hozira:

After calming down, I notised that my hand was still burning. No sense in telling you now I don’t wanna rain the suprise.

  • Zamoni guzashta:

I noticed from this verse of the Emir that he understood my purpose and the shot was pointed.

  • Zamoni oyanda:

I saw that mice would destroy book.

  • Zamoni hozira-oyanda:

I know I’m free, I know that during the Shuroi Soveti no one could force me to marry.

CHunone az adabiyoti boloi ravshan megardad, zabonshinoson khususiyathoi zerini jumlai payravi purkunandaro bayon kardaand:

  1. Jumlai payravi purkunanda baroi ezoh dodan va purra na- mudani amali sarjumla istemol meyoband.
  2. Jumlai payravi purkunanda ba sarjumla ba vositai payvanda- ki «ki» tobe meshavad, V. S. Rastorgueva be payvandak, omadani onro nombar karda, in holatro mahz baroi takror nayoftani payvandaki «ki» manidod mekunad.
  3. Jumlai payravi purkunanda ba iborai masdari tabdil meyo- bad, vale qayd nagardidaast, ki kadom jumlahoi payravi purkunan- daro ba iborai sinonimi ivaz kardan mumkin ast. In ast, ki baze jumlahoi payravi purkunanda bemavqe va nodurust ba ibora tabdil doda shudaand.
  4. Vobasta ba tahlili sigai sharti- khohishmandi tobishhoi gu- noguni manoi giriftani jumlai payravi purkunandaro ba qalam dodaast.

Adabiyoti mavridi tahqiq nishon medihand, ki jumlai payravi purkunanda va khususiyathoi on to hol mavridi bahsi ilmi va tahqiq qaror nagiriftaast.

Dar zabonhoi anglisi va tojiki jumlahoi payrav ba du guruhi kalon taqsim meshavand:

  • jumlai payrave, ki ba yake az azohoi sarjumla tobe meboshand va hamon azoi sarjumlaro ezoh medihand va yo purra mekunand;
  • jumlai payrave, ki ba tamomi sarjumla mansub buda, hamai sarjumlaro ezoh medihand va yo natijai on meboshand.

Jumlai payravi purkunanda ba guruhi yakum mansub ast, yane vay baroi ezohi yake az azohoi sarjumla meoyad, onro purra mekunad va ezoh medihad. Vobasta ba hamin jumlahoi payravi purkunanda ba du guruhi kalon judo meshavand:

  • jumlai payravi purkunanda, ki baroi purra namudani khabari sarjumla meoyand;
  • jumlahoi payravi purkunanda, ki baroi ezoh dodan va kushodani mazmuni azoi payravi purkunandai bo jonishinhoi ishorati ifo- dayoftai sarjumla istemol meyoband.

Jumlai payravi purkunanda na ba hama guna sarjumla tobe shuda meoyad va na hama guna khabarho purkunanda talab mekunand. Jumlai payravi purkunanda ba sarjumlae tobe shuda meoyad, ki dar on yake az azohoi sarjumla- purkunanda namerasad va sarjumla chi az jihati mazmun va chi az jihati mavjudiyati azohoyash noqis meboshad. Misol dar jumlai soddai “I confirmed his introduction whith a gesture” hamai azohoi matlub dar joyashon buda, jumla na az jihati sokht va na az jihati mazmun hej guna noqisie nadorad, vale in fikrro nisbat ba jumlai zerin guftan mumkin nest.

Ba in namudi jumlai payravi purkunanda chunin qoida dodan mum- kin ast: Jumlai payravi purkunanda bar ezohi khabarhoe meoyad, ki dar tarkibi sarjumla azoi payravi purkunanda zikr nayofta boshad. Misol:

Anna was happy that her husbed was dealing with his best friend today.

Nihoyat kam boshad ham, jumlai payravi purkunanda bar ezohe meoyad, ki ba vay dar ayni hol azoi payravi purkunanda tobe ast. Azbaski azoi payravi purkunandaaksar vaqt pesh az fel va baraks, jumlai payravi purkunanda pas az on meoyad, dar in guna holatho jumlai pay- ravi purkunanda ba plani duyuum meguzarad va hamchun jumlai payravi hamrohi voqe megardad va in guna jumlai payravi purkunanda naoyad
ham, jumla noqis hisob nameshavad. Misol:

He was thinking about all this, but he did not know what the future holds.

Felho az rui munosibatashon ba obekt ba du guruhi kalon judo meshavand: guzaranda va monda. Tasiru harakati felhoi monda ba obekt nameguzarad va ba onho purkunandahoi bevosita tobe shuda nameoyand, ammo dar felhoi guzaranda tasiru harakat ba obekt bevosita meguzarad va onho hama vaqt doroi purkunandai bevosita meboshand. Masalan: felhoi to see, give, eat, close, dig, pick, ask, carry, bring, have, hear, encourage, prepare, read, To write, to learn, to sow, to reap, to drink, to sprinkle, to invite, to beg, to receive va monandi inho dar pahluyashon omadani purkunandaro talab menamoyand.

Purkunandae, ki dar pahlui in guna felho meoyad, azoi pay- rav-purkunandai bevosita meboshand. Savole ba miyon meoyad: hamai felhoi guzaranda jumlai payravro ba khud tobe karda metavonand? Misolhoe, ki zeri dasti mo qaror dorand ba in savol javobi manfi medihand. Aksariyati felhoi guzaranda bo tobe namudani azoi payravi purkunandai bevosita mahdud meshavand, baroi purra namu- dani inho jumlai payrav istemol nameyobad. Vale bisyor felhoi guzarandae hastand, ki na tanho purkunandai bevosita, balki jumlai payravi purkunandaro ham tobe menamoyand. Ba in guruh felhoi ze- rin dokhil meshavand: to say, see, hear, understand, ask, write, put, suggest, forget, not forget va monandi inho. Misol:

I have just said and I will say again that the farmers beat me, insulted me, did not give me the harvest and drove me away.She could hear them gathering at the breakfast table, sounding cups and spoons.

Jumlahoi payravi purkunanda na tanho baroi purra namudani felhoi guzaranda, balki baroi purra namudani felhoi digar niz meoyad. Misol:

You have the right to think so, and so should others.

Dar zabonhoi anglisi va tojiki ba felhoi soda tobe shudani jumlai payrav khele kam voqe megardad. Felhoi soddae, ki jumlai payravi purkunanda bar ezohi onho meoyad, asosan felhoi zerin meboshand.

To say – guftan:

He was said to have been a very good writer and poet.

To see – didan:

He saw from the window that his friends were coming to him.

Aksariyati felhoi ezohtalabi sarjumla, ki jumlai payravi purkunanda talab menamoyand, felhoi tarkibi meboshand.

Dar tobe namudani jumlai payravi purkunanda roli asosiro qismi asosii felhoi tarkibi mebozand. Onho vobasta ba khususiyathoi manoi va grammatikii khud ezohtalab meboshand, vagarna na hama guna felhoi tarkibi ezohtalab buda, jumlai payrav mekhohand. Masalan: felhoi tarkibii felt muvofiqi khususiyati hissai yakum ezohtalab meboshad, vale feli tarkibii to slip hej guna ezoh talab namekunad.

Miqdori felho dar zabonhoi anglisi va tojiki ziyodand, vale jumlai payravi purkunanda ba miqdori muayyani felho tobe me- shavand. Onhoro ba guruhhoi zerin taqsim kardan mumkin ast:

  1. Felhoe, ki news, information, speech, interview, communication and attitude- ro mefahmonand.

Ba in guruh felhoi zerin dokhil meshavand: To tell, to tell, to tell, to confess, to state, to announce, to read, to inform, to command, and so on.

Misol:

Ms. Van recounted how many good movies she had seen in the movie theater.

  1. Felhoe, ki understanding, accepting and discussing-ro mefah- monand.

Felhoe, ki manoi darkkuni, qabulkuni va muhokimavi dorand va jumlai payravi purkunanda bar ezohi onho meoyad, miqdoran kam buda, darajai istemolii onho gunogun ast.

Misol:

She remembers that when the car arrived, everyone ran to look for it.

  1. Felhoe, ki amaliyoti fikri va khulosaviro ifoda menamoyand.
  2. Felhoe, ki holathoi gunogunro ifoda menamoyand.

Ba in guruh felhoi zerin dokhil meshavand: To be afraid, to understand, to be happy, to be ashamed, to be happy, to be surprised, to be hesitant, to be sad va monandi inho. Misol:

I was afraid that my mother would suddenly become ill.

  1. Felhoi modali. Ba felhoi modali tobe shuda onro purra namudan va ezoh dodani jumlai payravi purkunanda khele ziyod ast.

Felhoi modalii khostan va tavonistan nihoyat seristemol buda, dar hamai shakhsu shumoraho voqe megardand. Misol:

I didn’t want to be late for work.

  1. Jumlai payravi purkunandai tarkibhoi frazeologiero, ki ba vazifai khabar omadaand, niz ezoh medihand. Misol:

I have no secrets from you, and my heart is full that you will not tell them to anyone.

  1. Ba tarkibhoi beshakhs, ki odatan khabari jumlahoi beshakhs shuda meoyand, tobe shuda, onhoro ezoh dodani jumlai payravi purkunanda niz mushohida meshavand. Misol:

In this regard, language teachers should be encouraged to make more use of the methods of past writers.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

jubron-xalil

Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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