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Tarjumai mazmuni va tahtullafzii vohidhoi frazeologi dar zabonhoi tojiki va anglisi

Zabonhoi tojiki va anglisi doroi zakhirai khele boyi kalimavu tarkibho meboshad. YAk guruh kalimavu tarkibho sermano buda, vobasta ba ifodai fikr yake az manohoi on korbast megardad. Guruhi digar manohoi ziyod nadorand va tanho yak- du manoro ifoda mekunandu bas. Guruhi seyum ba gayr az manohoi aslii khud manohoi majoziro mefahmonand. Az in ru, hangomi kor- basti kalimayu tarkibho baroi ifodai maqsadi khud kalimai muvofiq va manoi munosibi onro boyad istifoda kard, vagarna manoi jumla tagyir meyobad, yo ki maqsadi guyanda yo navisanda ba tavri vozeh ifoda namegardad.

1610980671_Omuzishho nishon medihand, ki pahluhoi mukhtalifi mano, ham asli va ham majozii vohidhoi frazeologi hamesha boisi khushoburang bayon yoftani fikr megardand. Az tahlilho barmeoyad, ki vohidhoi frazeo- logi dar hardu zabon istifoda meshavand va to darajae az hamdigar tafovut va umumiyatho dorand. Hamin tafovut va yo khud umumiyatho han- gomi tarjuma ba zaboni anglisi va yo baraks ba mutarjimon hamesha mushkilihoro pesh meorad. Aniq sarfahm raftani manoi asosii kali- ma, majoz va yo asl budani on, murodif shudani on dar jumla dar aksar mavrid nofahmihoro ba miyon meovarad. Aslan, aksari muhaqqiqon bar onand, ki tarjuma yak navi sanati sukhan ast va tarjumon boyad
hamin sanatro mohirona, ustodona ba kor barad, to in ki manoi asl dar asari tarjumashuda kosta nagardad. Tarjuma khud yake az vositahoest, ki dar tahkimi ravobiti gunoguni khalqhoi olam naqshi boriz dorad. Tarjuma kardan hamesha va dar hama davrho imkoniyat faroham meo- vard, ki khalqho ba hamdigar aloqamand boshand, az urfu odat, madaniyat, farhangi hamdigar barkhurdor gardand. Tarjuma hamchun ilm qonun va qonuniyathoi khudro dorad. Az in nigoh har yak mutarjim uhdador ast, ki az on ogah boshad va dar tarjuma to haddi imkon istifoda barad. Oid ba tarjuma va ilmi tarjuma olimon va zabonshinosoni gunoguni dunyo ba monandi V.Gumboldt, A.SHmigel, A. Tayler, A.V.Fyodorov, O.Ka- de, V.N.Komissarov, YU.Nayda, J.Vine, L.S.Barkhudarov, A.D.SHveytser, E.Mulloqandov, B.Kamoliddinov, M.B.Nagzibekova, M.M.Mirzoeva va digaron nazariya va aqidahoi gunogun peshnihod namudaand.

Durust ast, ki usulhoi gunoguni tarjuma az nigohi bisyor olimoni zabonshinos, mutarjimon dar ilm peshnihod shudaand. Istifodai in prinsipho va yo metodhoi tarjuma dar amal tatbiq karda shudaand va onho dar hama mavrid boyad rioya karda shavand. Aslan, dar tarjuma rioya kardani prinsipho ba monandi durust doda tavonistani fikri nuskhai asl, kalimahoi matni aslro vusat doda tavonistan, khonda shudani tarjuma hamchun matni asl, nigohdoshtani uslubi matni asl prinsiphoi asosi ba hisob meravand. Dar asari A.Tayler «Prinsiphoi tarjuma» prinsiphoi zerin peshnihod shudaast:

Tarjuma boyad purra goyahoi matni aslro dar bar megirad;

Uslub va tarzi ifodai tarjuma ba matni asl monand boshad; Tarjuma niz misli matni asl oson khonda shavad.

YAne, dar tarjuma boyad prinsiphoi mazkur hamchunone rioya shavand, ki ifodai malumotro bo juziyotash, manohoi vojahoi alohidaro tamin karda tavonad, aniqtarash nuskhai sahehi matni asl boshad.

Aslan, hangomi tarjumai iborahoi frazeologi aksariyati fraze- ologizmhoi mamul rohi durusti khudro paydo mekunand, ammo dar barobari on usulhoi gunoguni tarjuma sababgori istifoda nashudani hamin vojaho dar zaboni tarjumashavanda gardidanashon mumkin ast. Mushohida kardan mumkin ast, ki onho gohe tarjumai tahtullafz, gohe tasviri, va to joe mutarjimon kushish menamoyand, ki dar zaboni tarjumashavanda murodifi muvofiq paydo namoyand. Aslan, tarjumai
voja yo kalima az kushishi dar zaboni tarjumashavanda yoftani vojai hammanoi on ogoz meshavad. Aksariyati kalimahoi zaboni tojiki va yo anglisi vojahoi hammanoi khudro dar hardu zabon dorand. Dar na- zariyai tarjuma vojai zaboni tojikiro, ki manoyash ba yagon kalimai zaboni anglisi nazdik meboshad muvofiqati vojagi yo muvofiqati lugavi menomand.

Vohidhoi frazeologi ham dar zaboni tojiki va ham anglisi makh- susan dar asarhoi badei farovon istifoda meshavand va onho ba zabonhoi gunoguni dunyo bo tarzhoi mukhtalif tarjuma meshavand va ba khonandagon peshnihod megardand.

Vohidhoi frazeologi dar zabon manohoi ba khud khos dorand. Za- bonshinos Majidov H. qayd mekunad, ki «ifodai manoi yaklukhti ba hissaho judonashavanda az khususiyathoi muhimi vohidi frazeologi meboshad. Vohidi frazeologi bo manoi yaklukht va tobishu ohanghoi fardii khud kheli makhsusi manoro ba vujud meovarad”. Muayyan kardani manoi kalimaho, aniq dark kardani on hamchun vohidi frazeologi, dar manoi majozi omadani onho hamesha ba mutarjim mushkilihoro pesh meorad.

Ba zaboni anglisi ifoda kardani iborahoi frazeologi vazifai mushkil dar nazdi tarjumonho meboshad. Tavassuti gusturdagii mano, majoziyat, kutohi va vozeh budani mano iborahoi frazeologi dar zabon naqshi muhimro mebozand. «Durust ast, ki yak qator vohidhoi frazeologi az jihati juzhoi dokhiliashon tagyir yofta metavonand. Dar in mavrid varianthoi navi vohidhoi frazeologi ba vujud meoyand.

Iborahoi frazeologi khususan dar nutqi shifohi, matnhoi badei va siyosi istifoda meshavand. Hangomi tarjumai iborahoi frazeologi ba tarjumon zarur ast, ki ham mano va ham fasohati onro tasvir karda tavonad va dar ayni zamon naboyad vazifai uslubii iborahoi frazeologiro az maddi nazar dur monad. Dar surati mavjud nabudani iborai frazeologii murodif, mutarjim majbur ast, ki murodifi nazdik ba onro justuju kunad. Aslan, chi tavre ki zikr shud se navi tarjumai gayrifrazeologiro metavon mushohida kard:

  • tarjumai lugavi (agar dar zaboni tarjumashavanda muodili muvofiq paydo nashavad, ibora bo leksikai az jihati mano nazdik tarjuma meshavad);
  • tahtullafzi (bo maqsadi muayyan kardani matlabi navisandai asar, dar holati paydo nakardani tarjumai on bo usulhoi digar);
  • tasviri (sharhi vohidi frazeologi va muayyan kardani mazmuni on baroi khonanda).

Dar zaboni anglisi muodilhoi iborahoi frazeologi metavonand purra va yo qismi boshand. Muodilhoi purrai frazeologi on ekvi- valenthoi tayyori zaboni anglisi meboshand ki ba zaboni tojiki az jihati mano, sokhtor, fasohat, tobishi uslubi va sokhtori grammatiki bo ham muvofiqat mekunand. Masalan, dar misoli zerin hamin nuktaro didan mumkin ast:

namaki zamin – the salt of the earth;

bo otash bozi kardan – to play with the fire;

be otash dud nest – there is no smoke without fire va gayra.

Tarjuma bar zaminai ekvivalenti qismi, manoi onro dorad, ki hangomi tarjuma fasohat, oburangi badeii frazeologizmho purra doda shavand. Dar zeri in istiloh boyad nazar dosht, ki dar varianti peshnihodshudai tarjuma baze farqiyatho nisbati zaboni tojiki vujud dorand. YAne, ba tarjumon hangomi tarjumai iborai frazeo- logi sokhtori zabonii on muhim nabuda, oburangii on (yane, manoi komil) muhimtar ast. Ekvivalenthoi qismi iborahoi frazeologiro ba se guruh taqsim kardan mumkin ast. Ba guruhi yakum frazeologizmhoe dokhil meshavand, ki az jihati mano, rangorangii uslubi va khushobu- rangi bo ham nazdik meboshand, ammo az jihati uzvhoi leksiki farq dorand. Masalan, dar iborai kuhhoi tillo / sitora vada dodan – to promise wonders, to promise the moon va gayraho. Guruhi duyumi onho az jihati shumora, tartibi kalimaho az hamdigar tafovut doshta, az jihati mano, sokhtori leksiki va uslub muvofiqat mekunand. Masalan: Dar shahri kuron yakchashma shoh ast. ~ Among the blind one-eyed is a king (farq dar shumora).

Guruhi seyumi frazeologizmho qarib az hama jihat bo ham muvo- fiqat mekunand, ba juz tarzi ifoda va fasohat. Masalan, kas naguyad, ki dugi man turush ast – every bird likes its own nest va gayraho.

YAke az khususiyathoi khosi kalimahoi dokhili har yak zabon in imkoni- yati tashkil kardani har guna payvastagiho meboshad. On payvastagihoe, ki doimo hamchun namunahoi tayyor istifoda meshavand, iborahoi rekhta va onhoe, ki doimo ivaz shuda metavonand payvastagihoi ozod
menomand. Az in ru, ba tarjumon hamesha lozim ast, ki iborahoi rekhtai zaboni tarjumashavandaro nagz donad, zero onho ba nutq khususiyati idiomatiki/majozi medihand. Masalan, namunai payvastagihoi ozod: devori ohanin – an iron fence, mazzai tez – a bitter testes; instikti gurg – a wolf’s instinct; payvastagihoi rekhta: irodai ohanin – a cast-iron will; hazli tez – bitter irony; ishtihoi gurg – voracioius appetite va g. Dar aksar mavrid dar tarjumai chunin vojaho usulhoi paydo kardani ekviva- lent dar zaboni tarjumashavanda istifoda megardand. YAne, hangomi tarjumai iborahoi rekhta murodifi muvofiq yo tayyori zaboni digar istifoda meshavad. Dar sarchashmahoi gunogun chunin rohi tarjumaro ekvivalenti ziyoddoshta nom mebarand.

Dar hamin hol prinsipi mazkur vayron nameshavad, agar ba zaboni tarjumashavanda rohhoi gunoguni ifoda vujud doshta boshad. CHunonchi dar iborai mazkur: musallahsha- vii boshitob, bo shitob musallah shudan – arms race yo khud arms drive. Hangomi tarjumai iborahoi rekhta az usulhoi gunogun kor farmudan mumkin ast. Masalan, tarjumai intikhobi. Dar zeri in mafhum odatan tarjuma bo yorii murodifhoi imkonpaziri zaboni tarjumashavanda dar nazar doshta meshavad. Intikhobi murodif yo khud sinonim az matni zaboni tarjumashavanda vobasta ast. Boyad guft, ki dar tarjumai chunin iboraho holathoe ba nazar merasand, ki onho dar zabon ekvivalent nadorand. Dar in surat istifodai metodi tarjumai ozod qobili qa- bul ast.

Aslan, az rui peshnihodi sarchashmahoi ilmii gunogun du rohi tarjumai ozodi iborahoi rekhtaro imkonpazir mehisoband: tarjumai tahtullafzi kardan va yo az metodi tasviri istifoda burdan, ki dar in bora bolotar sukhan rondem. Albatta, boyad zikr kard, ki metodhoi digari tarjuma dar zabon vujud dorand, ammo tarjumai tasviri nisbat ba tarjumai intikhobi asosyofta az mutarjim mahorat va malakai muay- yanro hangomi tarjuma talab mekunad, ki hamin usulhoro dar tarjumai asarhoi intikhobshudai in risola mushohida kardan mumkin ast.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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