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Tavhid chist ? – khudoshinosi!

Muvofiqi talimot va talaboti islom imon yo khud etiqod ba Hudoi vohidu yakto (Alloh), ki kholiqi tamomi mavjudot va moliku hokimi tamomi olam, Parvardigori zaminu osmon (Rabbus- samovoti val-arz) donista meshavad, nakhust zaboni ba vositai guftani kalimai shahodat va sipas qalban tasdiqu qabul kardan hosil megardad. YAne imon az tariqi iqrori zaboni va tasdiqi qalbii yaktoi- vahdoniyati Alloh, risolati Payombari islom(s) va maod (ruzi okhirat) hosil meshavad. In jihati etiqodii islom bo soddagii khud jolibi tavajjuh ast. Dar haqiqat hamin soddagii garavish ba islom va soddagii marosimu ibodathoi on nisbat ba digar dinho yake az sababhoi zud intishor yoftanash dar bayni qaboili arab va berun az on gardid.

Imon zarurati shinokhtani Hudoro taqozo mekunad. Muvofiqi ilohiyoti islomi, ki asosi onro oyathoi quroni va hadishoi Muhammad (s) tashkil mekunad, Hudo yakkavu yagona ast. Az in ru islom dini tavhidi (monoteisti) ba shumor meravad. YAktoparastii islomi, yaktoparastii kholis ast. On komilan nazar ba digar dinho az oloishhovu boqimondahoi shirk- bisyorkhudoi (politeizm) pok shudaast. Hej yake az muassisoni adyoni buzurg monandi Muhammad(s) ba tavhidi qati va bosubot napardokhtaand va dar himoyai on pofishori nakardaand.

Tavhidi islomi az matnu mazmuni sarchashmahoi asosii on biduni hej guna tavil va tafsir vozeh va ravshan ast. Hudovandi islom az hama gunoh meguzarad, magar az shirkyane chize yo kasero ba vahdat, azamat, kibriyo va qudrat ba Alloh sharik donistan.

Dar Quron omadaast: “Qulhuvaal-lohu ahad allohus-samad. Lamyalidva lam yulad va lam yakun lohu kuffuvan aha.d”(Q._Ikhlos: 1-3) yane, “Bigu: “Vay Hudoi yaktost, Hudoi jovid ast, na kase farzandi U, na farzandi kasest va khej kas misl va hamtoi U nest”. Malum, ki dar dini nasroni, harchand on ham dini tavhidi- monoteisti ast, Hudoi yagona dar se surat (iqnum): Hudo Padar, Hudo Pisar, Ruhi Muqaddas zohir meshavad. Surai zikrshudai quroni va bisyor digar oyathoi ba on monand mahz ba muqobili chunin tasavvurothoi nasroni va dinhoi butparasti ravona shudaast. Hulosa, Hudo dar islom az hama guna shabohathoi antropomorfii zohiri pok karda shudaast. Hudoro dar hej shakle tasavvur kardan mumkin nest. Vaqto ki gufta meshavad, Hudo mebinad, meshunavad, meguyad, dar arshu kursi menishinad hama istiori meboshad. Tasavvur kardan on, ki Hudo misli inson zabonu dahon gushu chashm va gayra dorad mushrikist va on gunohi sakhtest dar islom. “Innaal-loha lo yagfara manyushruk bihi”. Hamono Hudo kasero, ki ba u sharik sokhta namebakhshad” ( Q.4:116). CHunin oyatho dar Quron ziyodand.

Dar tarikhi ilohiyoti islom bayni firqahoi gunogun chun: sifotiyon, jabariya va qadariya, mutazila, ashariya va salafiya dar atrofi in mavzu bahsu jadalhoi ziyode ba vujud omadaand. Dar natijai in bahsho nisbat ba in mavzu du jarayoni gayri ortodoksalii ifroti ba vujud omadaand, ki yake ahli tashbekh dalolat ba monandii “Allokh” ba inson mekardand, yane ba istilohi imruza antropomorfistho budand va digare ahli t a t i l Allohro be sifotu behuviyat, yane biduni atribut medonistand.

Hamin tavr muvofiqi talimoti islom Hudo ba hej yake az mavjudoti moddi shabohat nadorad va zoti Hudo asrori gaybist, vale baroi inson didani vay imkonnopazir nest. “Didi Hudo yane marifat ba zoti muqaddasi u,-meguyad Abbos Mehrin (SHushtari),-baroi bashar nomumkin ast, vale bo mutolia va tafakkur va taammul dar sanoe va makhluqoti u, mumkin ast vujudi uro ehsos kard.”(Abbos Mehrin ( SHushtari). Omuzishi islom yo khulosai talimoti islom. Tehron. 1354.42) . YAne inson khudoro tanh az osori sanati u meshinosad.

Hudo dar islom doroi nomho-asmo va sifoti ziyodest. Hudo fard, taolo (olimartaba, olimaqom), azali, mavjud qabl az mavjudot va qoim ba zot, olim, qodir, qahhor va jabbor ast.

Hudovand dar islom doroi s i f o t i s a b u t i ( tasdiqi, musbat) va s i f o t i s a l b i ( inkori, manfi) ast. Hudovand doroi dah sifat ast, hashtoi on sabuti va dutoi on salbi. Sifoti sabutii Alloh inhoyand: Hudoi Taolo olim ast, yane dono ast, zinda-hay ast, yane hargiz namirad, Kodir ast, yane tavonost; shunavost na ba gush; binost na ba chashm; guyost na ba zabon; irodat dorad yane har chizro khost karda va bikhohad bikunad; takvin-ofaridgor , ba vujudorandai hama chiz hast az nesti ba hasti, ofaridgori hamai olam ast bo sifati takvinii khud.

Ammo on du, ki salbi ast: avval on, ki Alloh taolo be ayb ast, ayb nadorad, duvvum on ki Allohu taolo sharik nadorad.

Ba gyr az sifoti nomburda dar Quron Hudo yak ismi zot va navadu nuh ismi sifoti dorad. Lafzi ” Alloh” ismi zot ast. Ismhoi sifoti az jumla inhoyand: Ahad (yakto),Hay (zinda), Olim (dono), Qodir (tavono), Same (shunavo), Basir (bino), Holiq (ofaridgor), Roziq (ruzidihanda), Gafur (afkunanda), Rahmon (bakhshanda), Rahim (mehrubon) va gayra jaman 99 nom ast.

Nogufta namonad, ki Alloh harchand dar surat ba inson, misli dinhoi digar shabeh nest, vale dar baze sifot bo inson yak ast, chun ki ruhi ilohi dar inson damida shudaast. Masalan, inson khud ofaridgor ast, khudo niz kholiqu ofaridgor, inson khud rahim-mehrubon ast Pavardigor niz rahim, inson khud olimu hakimu zaki ast, Parvardigor niz in sifotro dorad. Hamin tavr aksari ismhoi sifotii Hudo yo on sifotest, ki inson dorad yo nadorad vale mekhohad, ki doroi on boshad, misli hay (abadiyat), Qudrati beintiho va gayra. Az nigohi ilohiyoti islom in umumiyat, chunon ki guftem, az on ast, ki Parvardigor ba inson ruhi khudro damidaast va az in tariq inson doroi baze sifoti ilohi vale ba nisbati kamtar ast.

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