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Vazi iqtisodi va ijtimoi.

Vazi iktisodi va ichtimoii mardumi Osiyoi Miyona dar davomi asri XIX umuman pesh az hamrohshavii osiyoi Miyona ba Russiya khelo murakkab bud. Hususan mushkiloti iqtisodi dar nohiyahoi durdasti amorati Bukhoro, yane nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikiston mushohida meshud. To davrai ba Amorat hamrohshudani in nohiyaho va ba Russiya hamroh shudani osiyoi Miyona dar in mintaqa yagon davlati yagonai mutamarkaz vuchud nadosht. Dar Osiyoi Miyona monandi asrhoi pesh yakchand davlathoi feodali vuchud dosht, az qabilai khonigarii Bukhoro, khonigarii Heva va khonigarii Kukand. Ba gayr az in khonigariho boz yakchand bekigari vuchud dosht, ki dar bayni onkho doimo changhoi baynihamdigari meraft.
Dar kismi markazii Tochikiston, bekigarihoi Kulob, Hisor, Darvoz va Qarotegin vuchud doshtand, ki goho ba Bukhoro va goho ba Kukand tobe gardonida meshudand. Az rui in nishododi muarrikhon, «na davlathoi durust, na hokimiyathoi mustahkam va na hududu sarhad doshtand. Onho dar har kholat tagir meyoftand. Goho hududi onho vase meshud va onho goho doirai onho mahdud megardid.Dur budan az rohhoi baynalkhalki in nohiyahoro az nestshavi nigoh medosht.»
Dar in mintaqa ba monandi digar chamiyathoi feodali hokimiyat ba manfiati ruhoniho va feodalon khizmat mekard. Zamin boshad bar khudi hokimu feodalon va ruhoniyon taaluk dosht. Dar in choyho dar avali asri XYIII va to nimai duyumi asri XIX nishonahoi chamiyati to feodali va hatto nishonahoi obshinai ibtidoi mushohida meshud.
Dar mintaqae, ki tochikonu uzbekon bo ham mezistand munosibathoi feodali hukmron bud, ammo dar bazei digar mintaqaho boshad nishonahoi munosibathoi avlodii patriarkhali, khususan dar nohiyahoi kuhistonii Kulobu Garm boki monda budand. Qismi ziyodi zaminho dar tahti nazorati ruhoniyoni musulmonon, ki onhoro «zaminhoi vakfi» menomidand, budand.
Qismi ziyodi aholii bo zamindori, chorvodori va hunarmandi mashgul bud. Dar davomi asri XIX oloti asosii korkardi zamin omoch va kedman bud. Bo yorii in olothoi soda va kafomondai dehqonon zaminro kisht mekardand. Dar
vakti kishtu kor va digar korhoi khochagidorii az aspu barzagov istifoda meburdand. Dar zaminhoi kukhiston va zaminhoi kukhdoman zaminro bo dast kor mekardand. Az hama oloti oddi, hatto DOS on qadar malum nabud. Dar khirmanho bad az on ki gallaro medaravidand onro ovarda ba vositai barzagovho, ki az pasashon chapar basta shuda bud, mekuftand.
Dar zamin asosan dekhdononi choryakkor va mardikor kor mekardand. Az chor se khissai hosilro baze vakt az ham ziyodashro ruhoniyon va feodalon sokhib meshudand. Dar in bekigariho zaminhoi obi nisbat ba zaminhoi lalmi khelo kam budand va hamai zaminhoi obi dar dasti zamindoron va ruhoniyoni musulmon budand.
Devdonone, ki dar zaminhoi ayloki va vaqfi kor mekardand az rui zindagii khud ba dekhdononi krepostnoi monand budand. Baroi istifoda burdan az zamin bo tarzhoi gunogun az onho andozho sitonida meshud. Dar nohiyahoi kukhistoni Tochikiston asosani Qaroteginu Hisor shakli ba tariki ichora korkardi zamin pakhn gardida bud. Dar nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikiston andozhoi gunogun vuchud dosht, ki karib shumorai onho ba 50 – to merasid. Andoz az aholii mahali, savdogaron va khunarmandoni ruyonida meshud. Aholi andozro az hosil, hayvoni kori, bog va havli medod.
Ba ayr az andoz boz yak qator korhoi bepul vuchud doshtand, ki mardum kor karda muzd nemegiriftand. Ba in korho asosan sokhtani maschidho, kalaho, rokhdo, kuprukho va sokhtani obanboryu kandani kanalkho dokhil meshud.
Dar nokhiyahoi markazii Tochikiston feodalon vuchud doshtand, ki 100 desyatin va az in ham ziyod zamin doshtand.
Gayr az zamin chuyho, tabaqai hukmron dar zeri dasti khud ramahoi ziyodi chorvo nigokh, medosht.
Az sababi kam budani zamin dekhdonon machbur budand, ki zaminhoro ba tavri «sharikona» kishtukor namoyand va hama suporishoti sohibi zaminro beguftugu ichro namoyand. Ba tarzi «sharikona» kor kardan dar zamnho az on sabab bud, ki khamai dekhdonon sokhibi chufti gov budand. Aksariyati dekhdonon oloti kishovarzi ham nadoshtand. Hissai zamini «sharikona»dar bayni shirkatkunandagoni on az rui sahmi moli taqsim karda meshud. Dar natichai uzvi benavotari on, ki araki chabin rekhta kor mekard, kuti loyamutero sokhib megardid.
Dar katori dekhdononi bezamin mardikoron ham budand, ki mavridi istismori sakht karor girifta budand va muzdi nochize ba dast meovardand. Dekhdonon bisyor andozhoi ilovagi niz mepardokhtand. Monandi «mirobona» ( baroi oberi zamin), «alafpuli» (baroi yunuchqazor), «kushpuli» (baroi sari chorvo, az qabili asp, khar, barzagov) va gayra vuchud doshtand. Dar mulkhoi kukhistoni Bukhoroi SHarki aholiro machbur mesokhtand, ki baroi hokimon va amaldoron hezum tayyor namoyand. Dar borai hayati aholii Bukhoroi SHarki malumoti aniq nest. Vale az rui nishondodhoi sarchashmaho aholii Bukhoroi SHarkiro asosan tochin tashkil medodand. Ba nohiyahoe, ki asosi aholishonro tochikon tashkil medodand kismati chanubii Hisor ( darahoi SHirkent, Karatog, Honako, Luchob, Varzob, Semiganch), Fayzobod,
Dashti Bedona, rayonhoi Kulob, Karotegin va Darvoz dokhil meshudand.
CHoi duyumro az chihati aholii uzbekon megiriftand, ki az qabilahoi gunogun iborat budand. Asosan onho dar Hisor, YOvon, Kulob, Vakhsh va bishkent zindagi mekardand. Dar Hisor yuzho, markaho, barlosho, turkho, dar YOvon va Kulob – kalmi laqayho dar Vakhsh va Kofarnihon uzbekhoi qataganiho zindagi mekardand.
Gayr az in uzbekon va tochin dar Bukhoroi SHarki boz qiriho zindagi mekardand. Asosan onho dar Hisor va qarotegin zindagi mekardand.
Hamin tariq dar yak kator nokhiyahoi markazi va chanubii Tochikistoni imruza tochikon bo hamrohii uzbekon mezistand, dar Qarotegin va Hisor boshad bo hamrokhii qirgizho.
Az jihati mamuri boshad Bukhoroi SHarki ba viloyatho taqsim meshud. Viloyatho dar navbati khud ba tumanho, yane ba amlokdoriho taqsim meshudand. Amlokdoriho boshad ba miri hazora taqsim meshudand, ki az yakchand qishloqho iborat budand. Dar sari amlokdori arbobho meistodand.
Dar nimai avali asri XIX sarzamini pakhnovar az SHakhrisabz to Pomir ba hokimiyati markazii khonigariho sust aloqamand bud. Har yake az in hokimiyathoi feodali az chumla Hisor, Kulob va Qaroteginu Darvoz hokimi khudro doshtand, ki onho viloyatkhoro mustakilona idora mekardand. In hokimoni feodali to unvoni fakhrii atolikro sokhib meshudandu khalos. Albatta bo rukhsatii Honho.
Dar sari hokimiyati feodalii Hisor hokim meistod. Dar Qaroteginu Darvoz boshad shoh. Dar hamai in hokimiyatho daftari moliya vuchud dosht, ki onro amaldore bo unvoni devonbegi idora mekard. Boz amali digar az qabili Mirzo – kotibi shakhsii hokim yo in ki shoh vuchud doshtand.
Dar nazdi shokhi Qarotegin maslihatchiho vuchud doshtand, ki shoh onhoro az arboboni nazdiki khud intikhob menamud.Dar miyonai asri XIX dar Qarotegin karib 400 qishloq vuchud dosht. In kishlokdo ba 22 guruh muttakhid gardida budand va har yake az in 22 guruh beki khudro dosht.
Amaldorone, ki nisbatan vazifai pastro doro budand ba vositai tobeoni khud, yane oksakolonu arboboni khud andozhoi davlatiro meguzoshtand. Vazifai mirob va doruga dar sistemai hokimiyat nisbatan pastar bud.
Dar davrai hokimiyati feodali mansabi zakotchi chamkunandai andozhoi chori az hayvonot niz vuchud dosht. Hamai in amaldoron az davlat maosh megiriftand va az khisobi aholii ruz meguzaronidand. Hamai in ba on ovarda rasonid, ki dekhdononu khunarmandon boz ham shoktaru
kambagaltar meshudand.
Dar davrai hokimiyati feodali mansabi zakotchi chamkunandai andozhoi chori az hayvonot niz vud dosht. Hamai in amaldoron az davlat maosh megiriftand va az khisobi aholii ruz meguzaronidand. Hamai in ba on ovarda rasonid, ki dekhdononu hunarmandon boz ham shoktaru
kambaaltar meshudand.
Dar solhoi khukumronii amir Doniyolbi (1758 – 1785) va bad az u dar davrai khukumronii amiri digari mangiti SHokhmurod (1785 -1800) korhoi obyorkuni na tanho dar
nokhiyahoi markazii Amorati
Bukhoro, balki dar bukhoroi SHarkhi niz rivochu ravnaq yoftand. Pesh az sar kardani korhoi obyori bo farmoni amir SHokhmurod kismati sharkii Amorati Bukhoro ba vositai namoyandagoni makhsus – tanobchiho (zaminchenkunho) ba okrugho va okrughoro ba tumanho taqsim karda shud.
CHunin korhoi obiyorkuniro peshgiriftan dar nokhiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikiston ahamiyati khele kalon dosht. CHunki baroi parvarish kardani ziroathoi tekhniki, sabzavotkoriyu bogdori tasiri musbi merasonid.
Dar bekigarihoi Hior, Kulob va Qaroteginu Darvoz asosan namudhoi gunogun ba monandi: gandum, birinch,, zagir , nakhud, chav, chuvorimakka, kunchit va digar namudi ziroatu gallaro parvarish mekardand.
Ba gayr az korhoi dekhdoni – zamindori dar in nokhiyaho boz ba chorvodori niz mashgul budand. Dar bekigarii Hioru Qarotegin ba parvarishi chorvoi kaloni shokhdor, gusfand, buz diqqat medodand. Dar in nhiyaho aylokdoe vuchud doshtand, ki tamomi fasli sol ramahoi onkho dar in choyho mecharid.
Dar yak kator nokhiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikiston dar timai avali qarni XIX ba istehsoli ohan shuru karda budand. Asosan ohanro az kukhdoi SHahrisabz, Baysun va Qaratog megiriftand. Ohan dar vanch, niz isehsol karda meshud.
Tarzi gudokhtani ohan khelo oddi bud. Archaro suzonida lakhchai onro megiriftand. Hnomi gudokhtani ohan az hamin lakhcha istifoda meburdand.
Onhoero, ki ba gudokhtani ohan saru kor doshtand khudashon ohanro ba korkhonahoi ohangari meburdand. Masalan: az Darvoz ohanro ba Garm ovarda ba korkhonaho ohangari mesuporidand. Dar yak qator nohiyahoi digari Bukhoroi SHarki boshad ohangarone, ki ba in ashyo ehtiyoj doshtan ba on joyhoe, ki ohan istehsol meshud meraftand va dar hamon joyho az ohan mahsuloti gunogun mesokhtand. Az Hior ustohoi ohangar dar tobiston ba Karatog meraftand. Onho dar sohili rosti daryoi Qaratog joy girifta az ohani dar in jo buda, mahsuloti ohangari tayyor mekardand.
Dar nimai avvali asri XIX dar bisyor nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarkii Tojikiston metali ranga istehsol karda meshud. Namaki kuhi Hojamumini nazdi Kulob, yake az konhoe bud, ki tamomi aholii Bukhoroi SHarhiro metavonist az namak tamin namoyad.
Dar okhiri asri XYIII va ibtidoi asri XIX aholii khonigarihoi Bukhoro va Quqand asosan ba hunarmandi va savdo mashgul budand. Albatta in ba digar nohiyaho tasiri khudro merasonad, yane ba vositai aloqai baynihamdigarii savdogaronu hunarmandon na tanho dar shahrhoi markazi, balki dar nohiyahoi durdasti Amorati Bukhoro savdoyu hunarmandi rivoj meyoft.
Pesh az hama dar shahru dehot hunari bofandagi pahn gardida bud. Hususan hunari bofandagi dar bekigarii Hior nisbatan pesh rafta bud. Dar digar bekigarihoi Bukhoroi SHarqi az jumla dar Darvozu Karotegin ham hunarmandoni ziyode budand. Az pakhta matohoi ziyode mebarovardand, ki onro pesh az hama baroi dukhtani liboshoi mardonayu zanona istifoda meburdand. Dastgohi duzandagi dar bekigarii Darvoz, umuman dar tamomi Osiyoi Miyona nihoyatdaraja soddayu kafomonda budand.Dar Karatog matohoi abreshimi shohi va atlasi meboftand, ki onho nisbatan khushsifat budand.
«Zanonu mardon bofanda budand, dehqonon dar zimiston az sababi bekor mondanashon dar bekigarihoi Hisoru Qarotegin va Kulob ba kori bofandagi dast mezadand. »12
Dar bekigarii Darvoz matohoi az pashm tayyorkardashuda ba sifati khub bofta meshudand. Dar Hisor beshtar ba istehsoli olcha va bekasabi rakhdor, ki onhoro az pakhta tayyor mekardand, ravnaqyofta bud. Hunarmandon mahsuloti khudro pesh az hama dar dehahoyu bozorhoi nazdik ba furush mebarovardand. Faqat yak kismi kami mahsuloti khudro berun az mahala ba digar kishloku dehkadaho burda mefurukhtand.
Ba ayr az bofandaho dar bayni aholii nokhiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikiston digar namudi hunarho mavchud bud. Ohangari yake az hunarhoi qadimai mardumii in sarzamin meboshad.
«Ohangaroni Hisoru Qarotegin bo mahsuloti istehsolkardai ohanii khud, az qabili kordu shamsher, ki dar digar bekigariyu nohiyaho shuhrat yofta budand fakhr menamudand» . Dar bayni mardum boz ba digar hunarho az qabili zargari, kulolgari, chubkokuni, yarokistehsolkuni, charmgari, muzaduzi va gayra vuchud dosht. Na faqat dar kismati SHarki, balki dar kismati Garbii Bukhoro yagon zavodu fabrika vuchud nadosht.
Ba peshravii hunarmandi tartiboti feodali va tarzikori sekhi hunarmandon khalal merasonid. Dar hama namudi hunarmandi ustoho va shogirdon vuchud doshtand. Usto shogirdonu korkunoni sekhro istismor menamud, be ichozati usto yagon farmoishro nadosht. Farmoni usto baroi shogirdon konun ba shumor meraft. Dar chunin sekhho usuli duuzva (usto shogird) va yo khud seuzvai tashkili kor (usto khalifa, usto shogird) mavchud bud. SHogird avvalho baroi ichroi kor ba sifati muzd tanho khurok megirift, badtar andak muzd ham megiriftagi shud; aslan usuli shogirdi yake az tarzhoi istimor ba shumor meraft. Paydoishi usuli seuzva (aksaran dar istehsolot beshtar rivoch, yofta bofandagi, kashfduzi) az vusati ziyodi istehsoloti modi shahodat medod.
Dar bekigarikhoi Hisor va Qaroteginu Darvoz kosibi niz pahn gardida bud. Taraqqiyoti kosibi ba peshrafti iktisodii in mintaqaho yori merasonad. Asosi daromadi kosibonro mahsuloti istehsolkardaashon tashkil medod. Az sababi dagal budani dastgokhi hunarmandi sifati mahsuloti kosibon past bud. Ba in nigoh nakarda az sababi kamchini mahsulot dar bozorho mefurukhtand va az khisobi daromadi ba dast omada ruz meguzaronidand.
Vazi hunarmandon az vazi dekhdonon kam farq mekard. Daromadi onho na faqat baroi kharidani ashyoi khom va taminoti oila merasonidu khalos. Hunarmandon hunari khudro ba meroskhuronashon ba tavri avlodi meomuzonidand. «Har yak hunar oinnamoi sekhii khudro dosht, ki onro «risola» menomidand. Dar «risola» istehsoli mahsulot va hajmi istehsolii on nishon doda meshud. Hunarmand in qoidaro huquqi vayron kardan nadosht. Az hamin sabab dar korkhonaho yagon navigariro chori kardan ayri imkon bud. Nishondodi oinnamoi asrimiyonagi va muhobiliyati ruhoniyon sadi rohinavovari megardidand.»
Dar nimai avvali asri XIX dar qismati sharqii CHanubu SHarqii Tochikiston hunari ohangarii makhsusgar- donidashuda ba tarqqiyu peshraft noil gardida bud. YAk qismi ohangaron zanchirho baroi dar, nal, mekh va ayraho istehsol menamudand. Qismi digarashon boshad, asbobhoi gunogun baroi masolehi ohangari va dehqoni az qabili kaland, bel va gayraho mesokhtand.Qismi seyum boshad, ba sokhtani suzan, kaychi, teg baroi rishtaroshi va kordhoi gunogun mashgul budand. YAk qator mutakhassisone budand, ki onho ba istehsoli yaroqi otashfishon saru kor doshtand. Onho khele kam budand va faqat farmoishi hokimonu amaldoronro ichro mekardand. Dar miyonahoi asri XY «hokimi Hisor doroi yaroqi otashfishon bud. Mumkin, ki chunin yaroqro dar khudi Hisor tayyor mekardand, chunki dar in cho okhangari khub rivojyofta bud». Gayr az yarok boz onho (dar Hisor) ba istehsoli kordu shamsher ahamiyat medodand. SHamsherhoe, ki dar Hisor istehsol meshud, nihoyat khushsifat budand. U stohoi ohangar bo chunin mahsulotashon fakhr mekardand.
Dar bekigarii Darvoz boshad ustohoi mokhiri ohangar ba istehsoli asbobhoi gunoguni ohani saru kor doshtand. Ohangaroni Darvozi ohanro asosoan az Vanj dastras menamudand, chunki dar Vanj ohan istehsol meshud. Har yak ustoi ohangar korkhonai khudro dosht, dar on jo damgoh, ki az pusti buz tayyor karda meshud, vujud dosht. Dar Garm markazi bekigarii Qarotegin ziyoda az 100 khojagii hunarmandon ba korkardi ohan saru kor doshtand. Dar nimai avali asri XIX dar Garm, ki az se guzari kalon bo masjidhoyash iborat bud, ba gayr az khojagihoe, ki ba korkardi ohan saru kor doshtand, boz ziyoda az 100 khojagii hunarmandon vujud dosht, ki ba korkardi charm mashgul budand.
Dar nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tojikiston dar avali asri XIX umuman pesh az istilo shudanashon az tarafi amorati Bukhoro hunari bofandagi, ki mardonu zanon dar in kor mashgul budand, rivoju ravnak yofta bud.
Oloti asosii istehsoli dastgoh baroi korkardi pakhta bud. Hamai korkhoi bofandagi dasti ichro megardidand.
Kulolgari dar hayoti mardumi Hisoru Qarotegin nakshi buzurgero mebozid. Mavode, ki baroi istehsoli zarfhoi gunogun istifoda meburdand, gili makhsus bud. Asosan kulolgaron zarfhoi gunogun az kabili Kuza, Oftoba va digar zarfhoe, ki baroi khojagi zarur bud, istehsol mekardand.
Hunari jubkorkuni niz dar in mintaqaho rivoj yofta bud. Az chubhoi sakht ustoho asosan mahsuloti gunogun, az qabili ispor,shohin, belhoi chubin, kafsh, kulfi dar dastgohi bofandagi va asbobhoi musiki istehsol menamudand. Asosan hunari chubkorkuni dar Darvozu Qarotegin pahn gardida bud. Masalan aholii yake az kishlokhoi Darvoz hama ustoi chub budand va mahsuloti gunogun mesokhtand. Hunari zintaroshi maqomi khosro dosht, chunki talabot ba in ziyod bud.
Dar bayni hunarmandon inchunin ustohoi sokhtmonchi, az kabili devorzanon, andovagaron, nakshon ziyod budand. In kabil mardum, ki aksariyatashon dar Karoteginu Darvoz mezistand, baroi kuti loyamut paydo kardan aksar vaqt ba Quqandu Farona baroi kor kardan roh pesh megiriftand.
Dar nimai avval va khususan dar miyonahoi asri XIX dar kimati Markazi va CHanubu SHarkii Tochikiston savdoi dokhiliyu khorichi vuchud dosht. Savdo inkishofu vusat meyoft. Mahsuloti asosie,ki ba savdo barovarda meshud asosan mahsuloti khochagii qishloq az qabili gandum, birinch,, pakhta bud. Az sabai on, ki dar in nohiyaho chorvoi ziyod parvarish meyoft chorvodoron gov, gusfand, buz, asp va gayraro ba savdo mebarovardand. hunarmandon niz dar savdo faolona ishtirok mekardand.
Haridoroni asosii galla asosan kabilahoi kuchi va kuchiyoni chorvodor budand, ki onho bo zamin saru kor nadoshtand. Asosan mahsuloti gallagiro bekigarii Hisor bo digar mintaqaho (ba Qarshi, CHorsu, Kerki) ba furush mebarovardand. Ba ayr az mahsuloti nombarshuda boz mahsuloti digar – mevai khushkardashuda barovarda meshud, ki on hat to az kalamravi kishvar berun barovarda meshud. Hamin tariq dar solhoi 1837 to 1847 ba digar mintaqahoi osiyoi Miyona ba mablagi 171 898 sum mevai khushkardashuda furukhta shud.
Dar hayoti iqtisodi ichtimoii nohiyahoi Bukhoroi SHarki rohho ahamiyati muhim doshtand. Dar mintaqahoe, ki rohhoi nagz doshtand, baroi vusat yoftani munosibathoi savdoi yori merasonidand. Asosan savdogaron hangomi safar az ushturho istifoda mekardand, chunki naqliyoti charkhdor dar aksari
nohiyahoi Bukhoroi SHarhi dida nameshud. Dar rokhdoi kuhii in nohiyaho az kharu asp va ushtur istifoda meburdand. Tamomi aholii nohiyahoi Karoteginu Darvoz az sababi vuchud nadoshtani rohho azob mekashidand va baze az kismathoi aholii in nohiyaho tamomi sol az sababi nabudani rohho az olam beruna kanda meshud. Az kismati Markazi va CHanubu SHarkii Tochikistoni imruza savdogaron molhoi khudro dar bozorhoi Uroteppa, Quqand, karshi va Bukhoro burda mefurukhtand. Dar Guzor bozori kaloni chorvo vuchud dosht, ki savdogaroni Bukhoroi SHarki asosan rama – rama
gusfandhoro burda, dar on cho mefurukhtand. Dar navbati khud savdogaroni Quqandu Uroteppa ba nohiyahoi balandkuh az kabili karotegin rafta, molhoi savdo mekardand. Asosan savdoi onho ba tavri ivazi mol surat megirift. Avval savdogar narkhi moli khudro ba tangai nukragi gardonida, bad ba hamin vosita molashonro ivaz mekardand. Dar nimai avali asri XIX dar Hisor savdogaron moli khudro ba pul ivaz karda metavonistand. Vale savdo ba kuchmanchiho va qishloqhoi durdasti kuhiston ba tavri ivazi mol surat megirift.
CHi khele, ki dar bolo zikr yoft, savdogaron avval arzishi moli khudro bo pul muayyan mekardand va bad onro bo digar molhoe, ki arzishi onho ham bo pul muayyan shud, ivaz menamudand. Puli asosi dar amorati Bukhoro va digar nohiyahoi girdu atrofii on, az chumla dar Bukhoroi SHarki ham tangai nukragi ba shumor meraft, ki arzishi vay 20 tin (20 kp) – ro tashkil medod. Dar Qarotegin 1 pul gandum 9 tin, 1 fut ravgani gov az 3 to 8 sumro tashkil medod. Dar in mintaqa pashmu pust ham arzon bud. Savdogarone, ki molashonro ba Qarotaginu Darvoz mebarovardand, onro se barobar ziyod az narkhash mefurukhtand. Misol: matoi olacharo az Hisor burda, dar Qarotegin yak porchaashro, ki hamagi 60 tin arzish dosht, bo yak gusfand ivaz mekard. Halki kashshoku kambaal pul nadosht. Faqat tabaqai boloi az khudi shohonu bekon sar karda, to zamindoronu nazdikoni onho pul, yane tangahoi nukragiro dastras karda metavonistandu khalos. Dar Hior kamu besh savdogaronu hunarmandon pudro dastras karda metavonistand., vale dar Qaroteginu Darvoz dastras kardani pud khele mushkil meaftod.
Hulosa vazi iqtisodi – ichtimoii nokhiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikiston dar davrahoi pesh az istiloshudanashon az tarafi Amorati Bukhoro, khelo kam noguvor bud. Sababi in hama zindagii kishloqonayu fakironai in mardum, dur budani onho az markazhoi savdoyu taravdikardai onvakta, inchunin nabudani rokhdoi durusti aloqa, vazi notinchi siyosi dar mintaqai Osiyoi Miyona bud.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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