Home / Ilm / Vazi siyosiijtimoii Osiyoi Miyona dar asrhoi IV-VIII.

Vazi siyosiijtimoii Osiyoi Miyona dar asrhoi IV-VIII.

Asrhoi IV-VII davrai tashakkulyobii munosibathoi
feodaly mahsub meyobad.
Tarikhi ichtimoy- siyosii in davrai Osiyoi Miyona az Eroni sosony farq mekard. Agar dar Eron feodalizm dar sharoiti markaziyatnoku muttamarkaz va tashakkuli ittihodiyai siyosiyu-millii khalkiyati Eron tashakul yofta boshand, dar Osiyoi Miyona in ravand dar holati parokandagii siyosy, tez tez ivaz shudani saltanathoi khukumron (Kushoniyon, hokimi turk, eftalitho) barkhurd va omezish yoftani halqithoi mukimy bo qavmhoi kuchy va dar fazoi bisyor andeshii diny (zardushty va masehy) charayon giriftaast. Az in sabab in vaziyat ba holati siyosy, ichtimoy va farhangii chomea tasir rasonida, boisi zud-zud digar shudani avzoi siyosy gardida, dar fahmishi farhangy va ravandi tarikhy tasiri manfy merasond.
Tadrichan tashakkul yoftani munosibathoi feodaly, sust gardidani iktidori harbiyu siyosii davlati Haytoliyon va khoqoni Garbii turk parokanda shudani Osiyoi Miyona gardid. Besabab nest, ki dar asrhoi V-VII dar Osiyoi Miyona takriban 15 mulk davlathoi khurdi feodaly ba vuchud omadand.
Zamoni saltanati Sosoniyon 224-651 dar tarikhi mardumoni eronitabor davrai tashakkulyobii munosibathoi feodaly mansub donista meshavad.
Dar eroni sosony zinahoi tabaqavii idorakuny choy dosht. Dar in cho az zamoni qadim se tabaqai ichtimoy vuchud dosht: roniyon, sipokhiyon va kishovarzon. Bo mururi zamon bo barobarii nkishofi munosibathoi iqtisody tabaqabandy vusat yofta, tabaqahoi ichtimoii «dabiron», (kotibon, khodimoni darbor) atrofiyonu mansabdaroni davlaty, tabibonu olimon va ayraho bo in tabaqaho dokhil meshudand.
Har yake az in tabaqaho dar navbati khud ba zertabaqaho va guruhhoi ichtimoy chudo meshudand. Sarvari tashkiloti markazy( yane maqomoti olii ichroiyaro vuzurg (farmondor, sarvazir) ba ukhuda dosht. Pas az vuzurg(farmondor) dar sokhtori hokimiyat sarvar, roniyon (mubadoni mabad) maqomi seyumro ishol mekardand. Tamomi masalahoi diny, idorai mazhaby, charayoni siyosy-diny va ayraho ba sarvari ruhoniyon marbut budand.
Dar asrhoi IV-VI dar natichai tasiri etiqodho va mubodilai farhangii khalqho, afkoru akidahoi ziyodi adabiyu akhloki va falsafy paydo shudand. Zardushtiya bo dinhoi yakhudy, buddoy, masehy barkhurd namuda, az yak taraf dar on tagyirot ba amal omada bud, va az tarafi digar sharoiti khudro ba tartibu nizomi navi chamiyaty mutobiq namud.
Dar zamoni saltanati ziyoda az 400 solai Sosoniyon Avesto chandin marotiba kitobat karda shud. Bo darkhosti Husravi Anushervon baroi mustakhkam namudani dini davlaty murattab namudani kitobi mukaddasi zardushty ooz yoft. Ba choi nuktahoi ba zamoni Sosoniyon muvofiq nabuda ikhtisor karda shuda, ba choi on masalahoi ba akhloki diny vobastabuda hamroh karda shudaand.
Masudy qayd mekunad, ki Ardasher ba pisarash SHopur chunin vasiyat doda bud: «Bidon, ki dinu imon va podshohy hardu barodarand va biduni yakdigar vuchud doshta nametavonond. Din asosi davlat ast va davlat onro khimoya mekunad.
Bo Monaviya barobari poydor gardidani munosibathoi feodaly nisbati in sokht norozigii mardum toraft ziyod meshud. Etirozi mardum dar asrhoi miyona dar charayon va raviyahoi gunoguni kharakteri diny doshta ifoda meyoftand. Dar davrai hukumronii Sosoniyon harakathoi monaviya va mazdakiya ba vuchud omada budand.
Monaviya, chun talimoti diny, ki dar khud unsurhoi zardushtiya va masekhiyatro payvast mekard, dar davrai saltanati SHopuri I paydo shuda bud. Asosguzori in charayon payombar Mony bud. Mony (216-277) badi shikanchai ziyod bo farmoni Bahromi II kushta shud. Muvofiki talimoti u, dar olam az azal du kuvvai ba ham zid: nuru zulmot, khayru shar vuchud dorand. Dar olami nur- khudoyu farishtaho, dar olami zulmot- devu iblisho khukumrony mekunand. Ruh- samarai nur, manbai neky, chism ( moda)- samarai zulmot, manbai bady ast, baroi in ruh asiri chism meboshad.
Mony takvo va benikokhiro targib namuda, fireb, duzdy, sarvatmandy va molikiyati khususiro makhk mekard.
Talimoti u yak nav etirozi ichtimoy bud. Makhdudiyati in talimot dar on bud, ki u khalkro na ba muborizai faol, balki ba gushanishiny davat mekard.
Oini monaviya dar inkishofi chomea, munosibathoi ananavy va afkori ichtimoiyu adabiii Eronshakhr tasiri kalon guzosht. Garchande, ki ruhoniyoni zardushty bo sarvarii Kartir monaviyaro nisbat ba zardushtiya yak raviyai bidatomez elon karda boshand ham, payravoni monaviya ba tezy dar Varazrudu (Osiyoi Miyona) Huroson, umuman SHarki Nazdik ba afkori ichtimoiyu diny va farhangii mardum tasir rasondand.

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