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ZINDAGONIVA RISOLATI MUSO (Moshe)

Dar «Panjkitobi Muso» sarchashmai yahudiya, pesh az hama dar kitobi duyum «Huruj- berunomadan» va seyum «Adod» malumoti mufassal dar borai zindagii Muso doda shudaast. Nogufta namonad, ki dar sarchashmahoi islomi, dar Quron va «Qisas-ul- anbiyo», niz dar borai Muso matolibi ziyode, ba shakli doston va rivoyathoi to ba mo omada.[1]

musoMuvofiqi rivoyati Tavrot Muso dar Misr tavallud meshavad. Modari Muso, azbaski firavni Misr jihati peshgiri az afzudani nasli Bani Isroil farmuda bud, har pisarbachae, ki az ahli yahud tavallud shuda, kushta shavad, az tars uro ba sanduq andokhta, ba obi sohili qamishzori daryo meandozad, khoharash, ki az pasi sanduq menigarist, mebinad, ki kudak ba dasti dukhtari Firavn meaftad va bo hidoyati hamon khoharash dukhtari firavn Musoro baroi shir dodan va parvarish boz ba dasti modarash mesuporad.

Alqissa, Muso dar khonadoni firavn buzurg meshavad va vazi toqatfarsoi bani Isroilro mushohida mekunad. Dar javoni ruze hangomi himoya az yak yahudi Muso bo zarbae yak qibti (misri)-ro mekushad. Pas az in hodisa Muso az tarsi mujozoti firavn ba sarzamini Madyono (Madian) firor mekunad. Onjo dar khizmati yak ruhonie bo nomi Yitru(Iofar) chuponi karda, ba dukhtari u khonador meshavad.

Badi chand sol ruze, vaqto ki u gusfand mecharond, farishtai Hudovand az miyoni otashi buttae, ki furuzon bud ba u zohir gardid. U mebinad, ki buttae bo otash furuzon ast, valekin on khorbutta namesuzad. Muso ba on buttai furuzon mekhohad nazdik shavad. Ammo Hudo uro nigoh doshta mefarmoyad, ki kafshhoyashro berun kunad, chunki ba zamini muqaddas poy meguzorad. Hamon jo Hudo ba Muso bo guftani on, ki «Man Hudoi padarat, Hudoi Ibrohim, Hudoi Ishok, Hudoi YAqub hastam», khudro oshkor mekunad.

Hudo meguyad: «Azobi qavmi Hudoro (muvofiqi aqidai yahudiyon onho yagona qavmi barguzidai Hudoyand A.SH.) dar Misr didam, va figoni onhoro az dasti zolimonashon shunidam, ba tavre ki dardu ozori onhoro medonam..» Pas Hudo ba Muso mefarmoyad , ki u hamrohi barodarash Horun nazdi firavn rafta, bani Isroilro az gulomi raho dihad va az Misr berun orad. \Huruj.3: 1-14\

Dar Misr Muso va Horun bisyor mekushand va mujizaho nishon medihand, to firavn bani Isroilro ijozat dihad ba sahro jihati ibodati khudoi khud ravand. Ammo firavn ba hej vajhe rozi nameshavad. On goh Muso va Horun dar fursati munosibe, vaqto ki Hudo joni nakhustfarzandi misriyonro girifta bud va hama misriyon dar sugvoriyu taziya budand, bani Isroilro az Misr berun ovarda, ru ba firor menihad. Vaqto firavn az in voqea ogohi yofta, onhoro bo lashkari azime taqib mekunad, Muso bani Isroilro az qari bahri siyoh ba vositai-bo mujiza roh kushoda, ba khushki meguzaronad va hangome, ki lashkari firavn az pasi banni isroil ba qari bahr taqib kunon medaroyad, Muso boz obi bahri dunim shudaro ba holati avval barmegardonad va tamomi lashkari firavn halok meshavand. CHunin ast qissai berunomadani bani Isroil az Misr. Hulosa, bad az khuruj az Misr Muso banni isroilro zarfi chihil sol to ba vodii Kanon merasonad.

Buzurgtarin amale, ki Muso dar in safar kard, guftushunidi u dar domani kuhi Sino bo Hudo meboshad. Az hamin jo laqabi Musoi dar islom «Kalim»-sukhangu ast. Hudo ahdu paymon va avomiri Hudro ba Muso amr mekunad. In mukolima chihil ruz tul mekashad, dar in muddat qavmi Muso gusolaparasti ikhtiyor mekunand. Aaron (Horun) az tillo buti gusolaero mesozad va bani Isroil ba on qurboniho meorad.[2]

Dasturi ilohi, ki Muso girift, dar du lavhai sangin navishta shuda bud, ki dar Tavrot badan bo nomi «ahkomi dahgona» vorid va hamchunin bo nomi « qonuni musovi», «faroizi sino» marufand.(Huruj. 20: 1-23).

Hulosa, pas az chihil soli berun omadan az Misr pesh az vurud va zabti Kanon va sarzamini Falastini imruza (Filistiya), Muso vafot mekunad.

Davrai fathi Kanon (hududi asr.HSH-HP p.m.) va muborizoti bayniqabilavi solhoi 1200-1025 t.m. davom mekunad.

Nogufta namonad, ki yak qism olimon ba voqeiyat doshtani asorati Misr va bo peshvoii Muso berun omadani bani Isroil az on, shakku shubha dorand.[3]

Tarikhi aniqtari ibroniyon bad az Muso ogoz meshavad, ki onro ba du davra taqsim kardan mumkin ast: in davrai bunyodi mabadai avval (1050-587\6 t.m.) yo khud davrai to asorati Bobil va davrai bunyodi mabadai duyum (539t.m.-70m.)- pas az bozgasht az asorati Bobil ast. In jo dar nazar mabad ibodatgohi yahudiyon dar Ierusalim ast.

Davrai avval, bo istiloi Kanon ogoz meshavad. Az rivoyot va sarchashmaho chunin bar meoyad, ki tasarrufi bani Isroil ba khoki Kanon yak zamoni tuloniro dar bar megirad. Kanoniyon , ki shahrhoi doroi hisor va inshooti difoi doshtaand, ba istilogaroni bani isroil muqovimati sakht nishon medodaand. Banni isroil bo khunrezihovu kharobihoi ziyode muvaffaq ba zabti in sarzamin gashtaand. In hodisa hududi asrhoi H1-H to melod surat giriftaast. Maruftarin hokimoni in davrai YAhud Dovud(1013-973) va Sulaymon meboshand.

Dini yahudiya dar in barkhurd bo dinu oyinhoi kanoniyon muddate zeri tasiri on qaror megirad.Odatho va marosimhoi kanoniyon dar in davra ba dini yahudi tasiri muayyane meguzarand. Masalan, onho niz misli kanoniyon timsoli modagovro, dar ibodatgohhoi khud meguzoshtaand va onro timsol va ramzi YAhvo meshumoridand. SHoyad badi mavti Muso dini tavhidii u bo khurufot va oinhoi naturalistii mahalli oluda megardad. Badtar, mo dar davrai paygambaroini badi islohi dini musaviro mebinem. Dar in davra nabiyon: Ilyos va Alisha, Omusi Nabi, Hushai Nabi, Ishayoi Nabi, Mikoi Nabi, Irmiyo Nabi va gayra zuhur kardaand, va kushidaand, ki dini Musoro az oloishot mahfuz dorand va onro tabligu tashviq namoyand.

Davraiduyum, asorati Bobilva pas az onro dar bar megirad. Dar ibtidoi asri VI pesh az melod davlati yahudiyon ru ba inqiroz nihoda, mavridi tokhtu tozhoi qavmhoi hamsoya qaror megirad. Nihoyat, dar soli 597 t.m. shohi Bobil Navukhodonosar (Bukhtunnasr) ba yahudiyonhujummekunad, bad az se moh muqovimat, Urushalim taslim meshavad. Bobiliyon podshohi yahudiyon YAhviyo-kiyamro asir karda, mabadi Sulaymonro gorat namuda, dah hazor tan az najibon va ayon va ahli kasbu hunar va mardoni koriyu jangovarro ba asorat mebarand.

Lashkari Navkhudonosor ba Isroil hujum karda, markazi muqaddasi on Mabadai Sulaymon kharob va «tobuti misoq» ba kulli az miyon meravad va nomu nishone namemonad. Pisaroni podshohi yahudiyaro kushtand va khudashro kur kardand. Tamomi sokinoni shahri Urushalimro ba asorat burdand. Qisme az yahudiyon ba Misr firor karda, dar on jo iqomat ikhtiyor kardaand. In voqea dar tarikhi millati YAhud zarbai havlnoke bud.[4]

Bargashti YAhudiyon ba Urushalim ba sharofati galabai shohanshohi Eron Krushi Kabir bar Bobil dar soli 538 t.m. muyassar megardad. Kurushi Kabir bad az fathi Bobil onro poytakhti imperiyai pahnovari khud, ki az vodii Sind to shahrhoi sohilii YUnon tul kashida bud, qaror medihad. Krush yahudiyoni dar asorati Bobil budaro ijozati bargasht ba vatani khud dod. Aksar az in baroi bozsozii Urushalim( Ierusalim) va mabadi on dasti yori daroz mekunad va guruhi makhsusi sarbozonu odamonro mefiristonad.

Hususiyati muhimmi in davra az on iborat ast, ki holatu vaziyati tabid va gurbat az vatani asli, dar Misr, Bobil va gayra naqshi kanisaho (sinagogho)ro dar dini yahudiya ziyod megardonad. Kanisaho baroi on yahudiyoni muhojir (diaspor) yagona vosita va markazi irtibotu payvand bo zabonu dinu mazhab va yagona omili hifzi obshinaho, jamiyathoi yahudiya berun az vatanashon buda.

Hususiyati digari in davra dar on ast, ki dar asorati Bobil dini yahudiya az bisyor jihat bo tasiri dinhoi in mintaqa, alalkhusus, dinhoi eroni duchor shuda, rushdu takomul yoft. Badi asorati Bobil mo dar dini yahudiya yak qator unsurho va tasavvuroti muhimmi diniro paydo mekunem, ki dar shakli komilashon dar «Panjkitob»i Muso vujud nadoshtand. On ham boshad pesh az hama tasavvurot dar borai quvvai badu ziyonkorshayton (zeri tasiri pindori zardushtiAhriman), hayoti pas az margi, jannat va duzakh, tasavvurot oid ba maloik, va gayra meboshand.

Davrai navin dar tarikhi YAhudiya az zamoni istiloi Iskandari Makduni 332 t.m. ogoz meshavad, ki tasiri tamadduni yunonihelinizmro ba dumbol doshtaast.

[1] Vale boyad dar nazar girift, ki malumoti sarchashmahoi islomi na hama vaqt bo asl muvofiqat mekunand, dar onho bazan ikhtilof bo asl dida meshavad.

[2]  Tibqi akhbori Quron va «Qisas-ul-anbiyo» on shakhs Somiro nom doshta va in obraz dar adabiyoti klassiki vase istifoda shudaast: Az jumla Hofizi SHerozi mefarmoyad:

On hama shubadaho aql, ki mekard on jo, Somiri peshi asovu yadi bayzo mekard.

[3]  Nig, L. S, Vasilev. Istoriya religii Vostoka (religiozno—kulturnie tradisii i obshestvo) : Ucheb. pos. M. Vissh shk., 1983.- S. 69.

[4]   Muf. nig. Iosif Falaviy. Iudeyskie drevnosti. T.2.—Minsk: Belorus, 1994-.-S.22-25.

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