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Zardushtiya – dini Tojikon va Eroniyon

Zardushtiya az maruftarin dini bostonii khalqhoi tojiku eroni meboshad. In din ba nomi asosguzorash Zardusht nomguzori shudaast. On ba khato bo nomi dini majusi va mugon, niz dar adabiyothoi yunonivu islomi omadaast. Dini Zardushti az lihozi paydoish va domanai gustarish ba guruhi dinhoi milliyu davlatii havzai tamadduni oriyoi taalluq doshta, az lihozi davat ba khudo va ilohiyot ba dini tavhidii jahoni taalluq dorad. CHunki az nazari etiqod ba khudo zardushtiya dar ibtido yaktoparasti buda ast va khudovandi vay khudoi hamai olamiyon. Harchand dar zamonhoi badi to sanaviyat (dutoparasti)-i va dar davrai sosoniyon to bisyorkhudoi va butparasti tanazzul karda ast.

zardushtZardusht qadimtarin mutafakkiri shinokhtai Eroni boston ast. U az dehqonzodagoni oriyoi buda, padarash Purushasb az khonadoni Spitoman va modarash Dagduviya meboshad. Nomi Zardusht dar asl Zaratushtra (dar zab. avrupoi- Zoroastra) az kalimai murakkabi oriyoii kuhan buda, az du kalima: «zara» ba manii «doro» yo baze «zard» tarjuma kardaand, duvvumin «ushtara» ba manoi «shutur», yane «sohibushtur», «ushturbon» yo «zardushtur» ast.

Zamoni zuhuri uro muarrikhon ba zamoni saltanati Gushtosb (yo Vishtasb) yake az shohoni silsilai kayoni- puri Luhrosb nomida. Ammo tarikh va mahalli tavalludi Zardusht aniq nest. YAk guruh olimon tarikhi tavalludi Zardushtro hududi soli 660 (asri VII t.m.), guruhi digar hududi solhoi 1500 – 1000 (bayni asrhoi XV to X t.m.) takhmin mekunanD.

Mahalli tavalludi Zardusht niz mavridi ikhtilof ast. Baze guyand dar shahri Ray, baze dar nohiyai Mod ( Ozarboyjon)shimolu garbii Eron, baze dar Horazm va bazei digar dar Bokhtar ba dunyo omadaast. Ammo aniq ast, ki u davat ba dini khudro dar sharqi Eron ( Bokhtar) ogoz kardaast.

Rivoyathoi bostoni ba on dalolat mekunand, ki Zardusht vaqti tavallud bar khilofi odati kudakon mekhandid. Zardusht dar ponzdahsolagi nazdi omuzgore talim girifta va az dasti u “kushti” \ kamarbandi khosai zardushtiyon\-ro daryoft kardaast. Az sinni navjavoni bo khulqu khui khub bud. Nisbat ba pironu solkhurdagon hurmatu yori, nisbat ba jonvaron rahmu shafqat doshtaast. CHun sinnash ba bist merasad, tarki khonavoda karda, ba maqsadi yoftani haqikati ruhoni, ba justuju mebaroyad va darveshiro pesh megirad.

Dar sisolagi ba Zardusht chandin karomat va mujizote dast medihad. Muhimtarin hodisae, ki ba Zardusht dast dod, chunin bud. Nogahon khayoli shabahe, ki qomatbaland bud, dar barobari nazarash namoyon megardad, ki onro farishtai “Vahumana” /Bahman/, yane pindori nek nom dodaand, ki hamtoi Jabrail dar islom ast. On farishta ba u gmefarmoyad,ki omoda boshad to bo u bolo rafta, dar peshgohi dargohi “Ahuromazdo”- Hudoi Hakim huzur yobad. Vay chunin mekunad. CHun Zardusht

dar on anjumani osmoni va joygohi barin darun omad, soyai u mahv gardid, zero partavi tobishi farishtagon va shuohoi durakhshoni arvohi ulvi vujudi uro chunon garqi nur sokhta budand, ki soyae az u boqi namonda bud. Pas Ahuramazdo ba u talim dod va uro ba paygambari barguzid va farmud, ki haqiqat, ahkom va talimu taklifhoi ilohii uro ba olamiyon rasonad.

Zardush dar Avasto dar borai risolati khud chunin meguyad:

“ Vaqte ki “Vahmana”, “Pindori nek” nazdi man omad va az man pursish kard, kisti va ba ki vobastai? Va nishoni tu dar in ruzgor chist? Man bar u guftam: “Man Zardusht dushmani durug, ki to goyati tavonoii vujud bo durug nabard mekunam va pushtiboni nerumandi rostguyonam va saranjom ba olami be poyon khoham rasid va dar on jo Turo ey Mazdo sitoish khoham kard va nagmaho ba yodi Tu khoham surud. /A.:YAs.Hot.43:8/

Turo ey ravoni pok va muqaddas, Turo ey Ahuromazdo mesitoyam, hangome ki Vahman /pindori nek/ nazdi man omad va az man suol farmud: « Ohangi chi kor dori?» Dar posukh guftam : « Hurmat va sitoishi otashi Tu ohangi man ast va to tobu tavon doram dar tariqi Haq kushish mekunam, rostiro ba man nishon deh to uro bitalabam!»

Hulosa, pas az on makoshifa va kasbi maqomi paygambari, muvofiqi rivoyatho, Zardusht bedarang ba talimu targibi mardum ba dini behin iqdom mekunad. Vale dar ibtido kase ba sukhanoni u etibore namedod, payvasta az mardum va ruzgor jafo va ozor medid. Talimoti Zardusht ba mukholifati sakhti mugon (ruhoniyoni oini otashparasti) duchor meshavad. U baroi intishori talimoti khud ba darbori shoh Gushtasp (dar Avasto- Vishtasp) roh meyobad, pas az ozmoish va mubohisahoi ilmiyu mazhabi tavajjuhi shohro ba khud jalb mekunad, vale dere naguzashta bo igvoi onho Zardusht ba zindon meaftad.

Hangomi dar zindon budani Zardusht yake az asphoi dustdoshtai shoh sakht kasal meshavad. Tabibon az tabobati on ojiz memonand. Zardusht bo istifoda az ilmhoe, ki dar javoni omukhta bud, tavonist on aspro tabobat kunad. Bad az in ki dasisahovu igvoi dushmanonash oshkor megardad, shoh ba u az nav irodatmand megardad, dar in bayn shahbonu niz dini Zardushtro qabul mekunad.

Pas az in dini zardushti- «dini bihin» bo dastgirii shoh Gushtasp dar qalamravi Eronu Turon goh bo zuri shamsher, goh az tariqi targibu tashviq intishor meyobad. Tibqi akhbori «SHohnoma» Gushtasp dini Zardushtro ba vositai Isfandiyor dar Eronu Turon pahn mekunad. Firdavsii hakim zuhuri Zardushtro chunin tavsif kardaast:

« YAke pir pesh omadast sar-sari,

Ba Eron ba davii paygambari,

Hame guyad az osmon omadam,

Zi nazdi Hudoi jahon omadam. Hudovandro didam andar bihisht,

Mar in Zandu Usto hamunavisht. ..»[1]

Zardusht pas az intishoru rivoju ravnaqi dini khud boz bist sol umr didaast. Dar in muddat du jangi kalone bayni Eronu Turon shudaast va az rui rivoyatho Zardusht dar okhirin jang, dar barobari mehrobi otashkadai Balkh az dasti turonie ba qatl merasad. Dar on hangom u haftodu haft sol doshtaast.

Avesto – sarchashmai asosii Zardushtiya. Zardushtiya az jumlai dinhoi sohibkitob meboshad. Avesto kitobi muqaddasi zardushtiyon va guzashta az in qadimtarin yodgorii tarikhi va sarchashmai khatti – adabi, falsafi va dinii khalqhoi eroninajod meboshad. Nuskhai aslii Avesto to ba mo omada narasidaast. Muvofiqi malumothoi tarikhi va tahqiqoti olimon avalin bor Avestoro Gushtosp yo Doro dar du nuskha bar rui 120 hazor pusti gov ba rangi tilloi navishtaast. YAk nuskhai onro dar otashkadai Gundishopikon va nuskhai digarashro dar Istakhr poytakhti Eron guzoshtaast. Vaqte ki Iskandari Makduni sarzamini Eronu Movarounnahrro tasarruf mekunad, qasri shoh, az jumla kitobkhonai Istakhrro niz otash mezanand. Nuskhai dar Gundishopikon budai Avestoro Iskandar girifta, amr kardaast, ki qismathoi marbut ba tibbu nujumro ba yunoni tarjuma karda, baqiyai onro nobud sozand.

Umuman Avestoi doroi hazor ( 1000) fasl va az 21 nask (risola) budaast. Az qavli Pliniy-donishmandi rumi Zardusht majmuan 2 000 000 bayt surudaast. Avastoi davrai hakhomanishi 815 fasl doshta. Dar davrai sosoniyon, porchahoi parokandai Avestoro jamovari kardand, ki on faqat 348 fasl shuda, ki onro niz ba 21 nask taqsim kardaand. Az 350 h. kalimai Avesto to ba mo hamagi 85 h. kalima omada rasidaast, ki hamagi shomili 21 nask buda, 5 kitob – YAsno, Visparat, Vandidod YAshtho, va Hurd Avestoro dar bar megirad . Qismati az hama qadimtarini Avesto Gotho meboshad, ki 17 bobi YAsnoro dar bar megirand.

[1]   Nig. Abulqosim Firdavsi. SHohnoma.-J.6. Dushanbe:- «Adib».1989.- S.88.-va83-115.

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