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AFKORI CHAMIYATII SIYOYOSI HALKI TOCHIK DAR ZAMONI SALTANATI SULOLAI MANGITIYON

Muammadrahim bad az tayyor kardani zaminahoi muayyan, Abulfayzkhonro bo du pisarash ba katl rasonida, soli 1753 ba sulolai Mangitiyon asos guzosht.
Mukhammadrahimbi baroi barataraf namudani
muqobiliyati feodaloni isyongar az kabili toifahoi uzbeki kenegas, bakhrin, qipchoq, yotti, uygur va digaron istifoda burda, onhoro az chihati iktisodi kamkuvvat va az chihati siyosi mutei khud gardonid.
CHi tavre ki dar bolo nishon doda shud, Mukhammadrakhimbi baroi tobe kardani nokhiyahoi Markazi va CHanubii Tochikiston niz dar in davra kushish namuda bud. Masalan, ba muqobili Hisor du marotiba (solhoi 1756-1758) lashkar kashid. Badi ba dast darovardani Hisor, ahamiyati in viloyatro baroi davlati Mangitiyon ba nazar girifta, Muhammadrahimbi amaqi khud Doniyorbiro hokimi Hisor va Viloyati kuhiston tain namud. Dar Samarqand, SHahrisabz, Toshkand niz tarafdoroni khudro ba sari hokimiyat ovard.
Bad az Muhammadrahimbi amaki u Doniyolbi (17581785) hukumatro sohib shud. Lekin isman Abdulozi (nabera Abdulfayzkhon) ba takht shinonda shud. Dar asl Doniyolbi tamomi hokimiyati siyosiro dar dasti khud nigoh medosht, u ba sarlashkaroni sulolai Mangit va quvvahoi harbi takya karda, ba manfiyati onho siyosat meburd. Dar natija sarlashkaroni sulolai Mangit zaminhoi ziyodero sohib shudaand. Davrai saltanati SHohmurod (1785-1800) dar
tarikhi sulolai Mangitiyon davrai nisbatan ustuvor gardidani davlati Bukhoro bud. u az mansabi khoni dast kashida, khudro amir elon kard.
Doniyolbi bo maqsadi pur kardani kharojoti davlati az lashkaroni sulolai Mangit, ki zaminhoi ziyodro sohibi shudand, namudhoi navi andoz, ba monandi, aminona, nikohona, muhrona va haqi tarozuro jori namud. Dar barobari in, ba tamomi kushishho Doniyolbi khudsarihoi feodalonro bartaraf karda natavonista, mutei qozikalon va ashrofoni feodali gardid.
Bad az sari Doniyolbi Abdulozikhon ba sari davlat baromad. Ammo u niz az uhdai idorakunii davlat baromada natavonist. Feodaloni Bukhoro soli 1785 atolik SHohmurodro ba takht nishondand.
SHohmurod dar davrai dushvor sohibi saltanat gardid. Ammo parokandagii feodali toraft quvvat megirift. Balkh istiqloliyatro ba dast darovard. Farona az okhiri asri XVII nimmustaqil shuda, dar injo khonigarii mustaqili Quqand tashkil yoft.
SHohmurod baroi bartaraf kardani dushvorihoi siyosi raftori khosaero pesh girift, ki ba khonho nomunosib bud. u khudro ba tariqati sufiya bakhshida muridi shaykhe shuda, dar zohir az darveshi miskin hej tafovute nadosht.
Zindagii shikastanafsonai shohzoda, soddagi, khoksori va dastrasi zokhiri boisi dar bayni khalq etibori ziyod paydo kardani u gardid. Pas az vafoti padarash SHohmurod libosi tavba dar tan dar kahoi Bukhoro gashta, bo nolavu zori az mardum iltijo menamud, ki gunohi padarashro bubakhshand. CHunin raftor, ki ba maqsadi siyosi burda meshud, dar rohi sohib shudan ba saltanat va ba tarafi khud kashidani diqqati mardum sahmi muayyan bozid. (nig. Semyonov A.A. Istorii bukharskikh mangitov. -Byull SAGU.- 1924.-№6 .- S.163).
Davrai saltanati SHokhmurod (1785-1800) dar tarikhi sulolai Mangitiyon davrvi nisbatan ustuvor gardidani davlati Bukhoro bud. u az mansabi khoni dast kashida, khudro amir elon kard.
SHokhmurod baze islohothoro guzaronid, ki ba bartaraf namudani norozigii umumi musoidat namudand. Vay khiroj va zakotro boki guzoshta, digar namudhoi jarima va bochro bekor kard. Az aholii ayrimusulmonon andoz – chiziya sitonida meshud. Zaminhoi vaqf, ki amiron musodira karda budand, bargardonida az nav barqaror karda shudand. Baroi sarbozon mohona muqarrar karda shud.
Hanuz dar davrai joniyon va badtar amironi Mangitiya sikkai puli nukraro vayron karda, dar bayni kurbi rasmi va amalii on tafovut ba amal omada bud. Az in jihat islohoti pulii SHokhmurod baroi ba tartib darovardani muomilot ahamiyati kalon dod. SHakli zokhirii hajm va vazni sikkaho tagir doda, onhoro az nukra sikka mezadand. Har kas metavonist ba sikkakhona nukra ovarda, ba ivazash pul bigirad. Islohoti puli ba peshrafti iktisodi va ravnaki tijorat musoidat namud.
SHohmurod baroi mustahkam namudani iqtidori hokimiyati markazi niz chorahoi amali andeshida, hokimoni viloyathoro az nav tain kard. Ba har shahr va deha kozi tain karda meshudand.
Mukobiliyati feodaloni markazgurez ham shikasta shud va sarkashtarini onho niz ba u itoat mekardand.
Islohoti sohai sudii SHohmurod baroi ba tartib ovardani kori umumii mahkama musoidat namud. Masalai huquqi va adliyaro qozikalon va mufti (korhoi chinoyatii harbiro qozii lashkar va mufti) dida mebaromadand. Muvofiqi islohot palatai olii dodgohi (sudi), ki ba on 40 nafar khuquqshinoson shomil budand, tasis doda shud. Dar borai muhofizati molikiyat qonuni makhsus qabul karda shud. Muvofiqi qonun agar kase nisbat ba molikiyat beehtinoi zohir mekard, sarfi nazar az martabai chamiyati, ba chavobgari kashida meshud. Masalan, baroi rohzani sar az tan chudo mekardand, baroi duzdi dasti rostro meburidand. Baroi muhofizati rasmu oin mansabi Rais chori karda shud, ki u ichroi tamomi farmonhoi shariatro nazorat mekard. CHunin tadbirho yak andoza peshi rohi goratu torochhoro girifta, ba manfiati tabaqahoi vasei chamiyati ravona kada shuda budand.
Dar sohai siyosati khorichi SHohmurod taassubi diniro mohirona istifoda meburd. u takhti shiori «jihodi muqaddas bar ziddi shiaho» chandin marotiba, ba Huroson lashkar kashida, chavononi qobili mehnatro az Huroson asir karda ba Bukhoro meovardand. Ba in vasila gulomfurushi khelo ravnaq yoft. Vay du marotiba ba Mavr lashkar kashida, sarbandi daryoi Murgobro vayron karda, aholii in viloyatro ba Samarqand va Bukhoro kuchonid.
SHohmurod baroi tashkil kardani davlati purquvvat sayu talosh namuda, viloyathoi Hisor va urotepparo ba itoati khud darovard, garchande onkho mustaqiliyati khudro nigokh doshta tavonistand.
Amir SHohmurod na faqat hokimiyati khud, balki saltanati avlodi khudro ba rasmiyat darovard. u ba SHahbonu nom dukhtari Said Abdulfayzkhoni Ashtarkhoni khonador shuda, bo in vosita unvoni Amiriro girift. Avlodi u nasabi khudro ba Saidho va nasli CHingizkhon nisbat doda, khudro vorisoni bevositai tochu takhti Bukhoro meshumoridand. Az davrai ahdi saltanati Haydar sar karda, ba nomhoi amironi manit kalimahoi «said va amir» ilova gardid.

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