Home / Ilm / Afkori jamiyaty- siyosy dar asrhoi H1 – XVIII.

Afkori jamiyaty- siyosy dar asrhoi H1 – XVIII.

Dar okhiri asri H az bayn raftani davlati Somoniyon va ba dasti sulolakhoi turk guzashtani Movarounnakhr va Huroson dar tarikhi siyosy va madaniyati khalki tochik dar asrkhoi minbada nakshi manfii kheshro guzosht. Ba choi davlati mutamarkazonidashudai tochik khokimiyatkhoi khurdi turky ba arsai kudrat omada, yak daracha moneai peshrafti ilmu farkhang gardidand. Ba choi Bukhoro, ki poytakhtu markazi asosii ilmu farkhangi tochik ba shumor meraft – markazkhoi nav, ba monandy: Gazna, Balosagun, Marv, Nishopur, Urganch,, va gayra paydo shudand
Sar zadani parokandagii feodaly barobari pastravii ilmu farkhang, inchunin takibi ozodfikron niz nakshi khudro guzosht. Ba vuchudi khamai in bedodikho, tagyir yoftani markazkhoi farkhangy ba ilmu adabiyot tasiri khudro narasond.
Dar peshrafti afkori siyosii in davra Aburaykhon Akhmadi Beruny (973 – 1053), Nosiri Husrav, Umari Hayyom, Mukhammad Gazoly, Abulfazli Baykhaqy va digaron sakhmi kalon guzoshtand.
Beruny dar khalli bisyor masalakhoi ilmy nisbat ba zamonash khele pesh rafta bud. Asarkhoi nodiri u «Osor – ul – bokiya», «Tasviri Hinduston» dar sokhai chugrofiya, astronomiya shukhrati chakhony paydo kardand.
Vay Hudoro ofaridgori aqli Kull donista, chunin mekhisobid, ki akli umumy nafsi kulro ba vuchud meovarad. Rukhi umumy boshad, materiali nakhustinro, ki asosi khama mavjudot meboshad, meofarad. In asos zamin, ob, havo va otash ast.
Beruny tasdiq meekunad, ki materiya mustakilona jismhoro ba vujud meovarad, shakli onhoro tagyir medihad. Vay materiyaro ofaridagor va qobiliyathoi ruhy (jon taffakur va gayra)- ro khosiyati jismho medonist.
Dar katori Beruny namoyontarini faylasufi asri H1 – Nosiri Husrav bud. Vay Hudoro ofaridagori akli Kull donista, chunin meguft, ki akli kull nafsi kullro ba vujud meovarad. Rukhi umumy boshad, materiyai nakhustinro, ki asosi hama mavjudot meboshad, meofarad.
Dar masalai munosibati rukhu tan Nosiri Husrav, jonro sabab va ibtidoi jismi zinda medonist. u meguft, ki jon dar chor shakl: mineraly, rastany, hayvon va odamy paydo meshavad. Ruhi odamshaakli olii ruhhost, ki insonro az jahoni hayvonu rastaniho judo mekunad.
Buzurgtarin namoyandai akhli tasavvuf va sohahoi mukhtalifi usuli islomii in davra Muhammad Gazoly bud. Soli 1081 Nizomulmulk uro hamchun donishmandi ilmhoi islomy dar Bagdod sardori Akademiyai «Nizomiya» tain karda bud. Dar ibtido Gazoly aklro asosi donisani haqiqat meshumorid. Ammo badtar ba akhli tasavvuf guzasht va onro ba qoidahoi dini Islom mutobiq gardidond. Vay asosi din donishro medonist, ki bo rokhi vajd ba dast darovarda shudaast. Dar hayot chizi az hama mukhim baroi u muhabbat ba ilohy va nazdikon bud.
YAke az muarirkhoni mashhuri in davra Abulfazli Bayhaqy bud. Badi kushta shudani Sulton Masud az vazifai dabiry ronda shud, vazifai saforatro ba zimma megirad.
Bayhaki dar ayyomi piriash ba navishtani asari 30 jildai «Tari Masudy» shuru namudaast. Arzishi in asar dar on ast, ki muallif shohidi voqeaho bud.
Muallifi digari zamoni Gaznaviyon Abusaidi Gardezy bud. u kitobe bo nomi «Zayn – ul – akhbor»- ro navishtaast. Asar dar borai shohoni kadimai Eron khalifahoi Arab, muzofoti Huroson, dinu oyin marosimhoi musulmonon, nasronien, yakhudien, khinduho va turkho malumoti zied medihad.
Dar asri H111 dar natichai oratgarii ziyod markazhoi farhangii Osiyoi Miyona kharob gashtand.
Zamoni khukmronii mugulho yake az davrahoi vaznintarini tarikhi khalki tochik meboshad. Istiloi vakhshiyonai mugulho va zulmi feodalonu ruhoniyoni mahaly, bekhukukii mekhnatkashon hama in sakhifahoi tirayu tor khususiyathoi peshrafti fikrhoi chamiyatiyu – siyosy va afkori chamiyatii khalkdoi Osiyoi Miyonaro muayyan mekardand.
YAke az khususiyathoi chamiyaty – siyosii Osiyoi Miyona dar asrhoi H111 va minbada az on iborat bud, ki mavzehoi ziroatkoru mukimnishin bo sakhronishinoni kuchmanchii moldor mutobiq karda, dar bayni khud munosibathoi nazdiki iktisody va siyosy doshtand. Qabilahoi kuchy ba navokhii barzgaroni mukimnishin hamlahoi oratgarona karda, madaniyat, urfu odatashonro az bar menamudand, ba hayati onho hamchun chuzi navi etniky dokhil shuda, ba hayoti mukimy meguzashtand va nufuzi khalkiyathoi turku mugul ziyod meshud.
Dar Haftrud, Horazm, Fargona qabilahoi ziyodi turku mugul choygir shuda, ba choi dehahoi ochiknishin, qishloqhoi turky tashkil medodand. Dar in davra rafti turkkunonii aholii mukimro tezonidand. Dar Haftrud shakhru navokhii mukimnishinon vayron shuda, choi onhoro khaymahoi kuchiyoni chorvodori mugul ishgol kardand.
Az tarafi Enesey ba in mavze aholii kirgiz muhochir karda shudand, ki sokhti qabila az sar meguzarondand.
Mugulhoi ba dashti Qipchoq omada ba aholii bodyanishinoni turkoni in sarzamin omekhta gashta, zabon va urfu odati onhoro kabul kardand.
Minbad kabilahoi turku muguli nuay, ki dar asri XV bo nomi mangit baromad mekardand, az nazdikii Bakhri Siyoh ba shakhrhoi CHend va Signaki sokhili Sirdaryo kuchidand. Dar asri XV aholii kuchii SHaybonu Urda bo nomi (uzbek) marufy karda meshud.
Uzbekoni dashti Qipchaq az rui paydoishi khesh asosi umumii avlody nadorand. Itihodi chuziyothoi etnikii tarikhan dar dasht tashakkulyofta massagetu sakkoy chunnu turky va muguly meboshad.
Dar naticha yak guri kaloni etnikie paydo shud, ki dar atrofii khud qabila va avlodhoi turku mugulro muttakhid sokhta, gokhdo bo unvoni turky va gokhdo muguly namburd karda meshudand.
Qaboili turk va turkgashtai dashti Kpchokro «uzbek» menomidand. Qaboil va qavmiyathoi nombarshuda, bo turkon kay boz ba Osiyoi Miyona mukimgashta omekhta shuda tashakkulyobii khalkiyati uzbekro tezondand. CHunin bud, avzoi chamiyati siyosii Osiyoi Miyona to nimai duyumi asri H1H.
Az asri H1H sar karda dar Osiyoi Miyona tagyirothoi minbada va avzoi chamiyaty – siyosy ba Russiya aloqamand meboshad.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

jubron-xalil

Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

222222222222222