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Guruhbandii tavakkalho (vidi riska)

Dar har sarchashmai idorakunii tavakkal guruhbandii gunogun ba chashm merasad. Holo dar adabiyoti iqtisodi guruhbandii tavakkal (riskba zaboni rusi)  va ruykhati beshtar purrai namudhoi on peshnihod gardidaast. Az in ru chunin namudhoi tavakkalro boyad ba etibor girift:

  • Sanoati;
  • Ekologi;
  • Investitsionni;
  • Qarzi;
  • Tekhniki;
  • Sohibkori;
  • Moliyavi;
  • Tijorati;
  • Sugurtavi;
  • Siyosi;

Namudhoi nombarshudai tavakkalro mufassal az nazar meguzaronem.

Dar zeri tavakkali sanoati, khatari rasonidani zarar ba korkhona (obekti tavakkal) va shakhsoni digar (seyum) dar natijai khalaldor gardidani kori mutadili jarayoni istehsoli, fahmida meshavad.

Gayr az in, ba on khatari vayron yo nobud gashtani tajhizoti istehsoli va naqliyoti, kharob gashtani imoratu binoho dar natijai tasiri omilhoi beruna, chun quvvahoi tabii va amalhoi badqasdona, dokhil shuda metavonand.

Dar zeri tavakkali ekologi ehtimoliyati ba vujud omadani javobgarii shahrvandi baroi rasonidani zarar ba muhiti beruna, hayot va solimii shakhsoni digar (seyum), fahmida meshavad. On metavonad dar jarayoni sokhtmon va istifodabarii obekthoi istehsoli ba vujud oyad va hamchun qismi tarkibii tavakkali sanoati mahsub meyobad. Zarar ba muhiti beruna dar namudi iflosshavi yo nobudshavii zakhirahoi jangal, obi, atmosfera va zamin inikos meyobad yo rasonidani zarar ba biosfera va kishtzori khojagii qishloq.

Mafhumi javobgarii ekologi-huquqi jubron namudani zarari rasondaro baroi iflosshavii muhit va nodurust istifodabarii muhiti tabiiro dar nazar dorad.

Tavakkali investitsioni bo imkoniyati nopura giriftan yo az dast dodani foida dar natijai amalisozii loihahoi investitsioni vobastagi dorad. Obekti tavakkal dar mavridi zerin manfiathoi mulkii shakhsone meboshad, ki mablaghoi khudro vorid namudaand.

Tavakkalhoi investitsionni vobasta az khususiyati jori namudani loiha va vositai jalbi mablagho guruhbandi meshavad. Dar holati umumi namudhoi zerini tavakkalro judo menamoyand.

  • qarzi;
  • dar marhilai avvali loihai investitsioni ba vujud omada;
  • sohibkori, ki bo marhilai duyumi loihai investitsioni aloqamandast;
  • sugurtavi;

Tavakkali qarzi bo imkoniyati barnagardonii mablagi qarz va foizhoi on vobastagi dorad. Barnagardonidani qarz metavonad bo sababhoi sokhtmoni notamom, tagiryobii vaziyati umumii iqtisodi va bozargoni, korkardi nokifoyai marketingii loihai investitsioni, vazyati favqulloda va gayra ba vujud oyad.

Baroi qarzdihanda na tanho bozgashti mablag qarz bo foizhoyash, balki muhlati bozgasht niz ahamiyati kalon dorad. Hamin tavr, baroi qarzdihanda khavfi zarari bevosita dar holati barnagardonidani mablagi qarz yo qismi on mavjud meboshad,inchunin zarari ba vosita mavjud meboshad, ki bo bozdoshti pardokhti qarzi asosi bo foizhoyash aloqamandi dorad.

Tavakkali tekhniki bo sokhtmoni obekthoi nav va istifodabarii minbadai on vobastagi dorad. Dar bayni onho tavakkalhoi sokhtmoni- vaslgari va istifodabariro judo menamoyand. Tavakkali tekhniki metavonad hamchun qismi tarkibii tavakkalhoi sanoati, sohibkori va investitsioni mahsub yobad.

Tavakkali sohibkoriro ba beruna va dokhili judo menamoyand. Tavakkali beruna bo rasonidani zarar va nagiriftani foidai muntazirgashtai sohibkor hangomi ijro nakardani uhdadorihoi khud az tarafi sharikoni sohibkor yo digar sababho vobastagi dorad.

Tavakkali dokhili boshad az qobiliyati sohibkor oidi tashkil kardani istehsolot va furushi mahsulot vobastagi dorad. Ba on omilhoi zerin tasir merasonand:

  1. sifati nizomi menejment;
  2. sifati mahsulot;
  3. kharojoti istehsoli;
  4. tashkili marketing va gayra;

SHirkathoi sugurtavi va instituthoi moliyavi ba sohibkoron baroi jubroni kharojoti tavakkali dokhili kafolat namedihand, zero on dar zeri bisyor omilhoi subektivi qaror dorad.

Zarar az tavakkali sohibkori metavonad bevositava bavositaboshad. Zarari bevosita- in talafoti vositahoi asosi va gardon, zarari jismoni ba hayat, zarari jismoni va mulki ba shakhsoni seyum (aholi va tashkilotho). Zarari bavosita-in nagiriftani foida dar natijai tanaffus dar faoliyati khojagidori bo yakchand sababhoi gunogun.

Tavakkali moliyavi dar jarayoni idorakunii moliyai korkhona, tashkilot ba vujud meoyad. On ba chunin namudho judo meshavad:

  1. Asori, amaliyoti (operatsioni), intiqoli, iqtisodi;
  2. Foiznok mavqei (pozitsioni), portfeli, iqtisodi;
  3. Portfeli (nizomi, gayrinizomi).

Tavakkali amaliyotii asoriro hamchun imkoniyati ba vujud omadani kharojot yo nopurra giriftani foida dar natijai tagyir yoftani qurbi asor va tasiri on ba foidai muntazirshuda az furushi mahsulot muayyan namudan mumkin meboshad.

Tavakkali intiqolii asori dar holati mavjud budan dar shirkati asosi shirkathoi fari (dochernee) yo filialho dar khorija ba vujud omada metavonad. Sarchashmai on metavonad nomutobiqati bayni aktivho va passivhoi shirkat boshad, ki asori digar davlatho hisob shuda boshad.

SHakli tavakkal - namudTavakkali iqtisodii asori hamchun ehtimoliyati tasiri nomusoidi qurbi asor ba vaziyati iqtisodii shirkat arzyobi megardad. On metavonad, masalai dar natijai tagyiryobii hajmi gardishi mol dar davlat, tagyiryobii narkh ba vositahoi istehsolot yo mahsuloti tayyor, inchunin dar natijai tagyiryobii raqobatpazirii tashkilot ba vujud oyad.

Dar zeri tavakkali foiznok ehtimoliyati paydo shudani kharojot dar holati tagyir yoftani meyori foizi az rui zakhirahoi moliyavi fahmida meshavad. Tavakkali mavqeii (pozitsionii) foiznok dar holate ba vujud meoyad, ki agar foizi istifodabarii zakhirahoi qarzi az rui meyori «takhmini» partdokht gardad. SHirkate, ki qarz medihad yo dar bank az rui foizi «takhmini» depozit doshta boshad, dar holati past shudani meyori foiz zarar mebinad. Va baraks, shirkate, ki az rui meyori «takhmini» qarz girifta boshad, dar holati baland gardidani meyori qarz zarar mebinad.

Tavakkali foiznoki portfeli tasiri tagyiryobii meyorhoi foizro ba arzishi aktivhoi moliyavi, chun sahmiyaho va vombargho inikos menamoyad. Dar navbati khud tasir na ba namudhoi alohidai qogazhoi qimatnok, balki ba tamomi sanduqi investitsioni rasonida meshavad. Ziyod shudani meyori foiz ba zakhirahoi asosii qarzi, az rui qoida arzish sanduqi investitsioniro past menamoyad va baraks.

Tavakkali foiznoki iqtisodi (sokhtori) bo tasiri tagyiryobii meyori foiz ba vaziyati iqtisodii shirkat umuman, aloqamandi dorad. Masalan, agar raqiboni shirkat istehsolkunandagone boshand, ki baroi faoliyati khud mablaghoi ziyodi qarziro istifoda mebarand, dar holati past shudani meyori foiz, raqobatnoki niz duchand meafzoyad.

Tavakkali portfeli tasiri har guna omilhoi makro va mikroiqtisodiro ba aktivhoi sohibkor yo sarmoyaguzor (investor) inikos menamoyad. Partfeli aktiv metavonad az sahmiyaho va vombargho, qogazhoi qimmatnoki davlati, uhdadorihoi hatmi, mablaghoi puli, polishoi sugurtavi, amvoli gayrimanqul va gayra iborat boshad. Omilhoi alohidai tavakkal metavonad ba namudhoi gunoguni aktivho tasiri mutaqobil rasonad.

Tavakkali tijorati bo imkoniyati nopurra giriftani foida yo ba vujud omadani kharojot dar jarayoni guzaronidani amaliyothoi savdoi aloqamand meboshad va dar holathoi zerin inkos meyobad:

  • Pardokht karda natavonistani mablagi mol az tarafi kharidor;
  • Rad namudani farmoishgar pardokhti mahsulotro;
  • Tagyir namudani narkhi mol pas az bastani shartnoma;
  • Past shudani talabot ba mahsulot;

Tavakkali sugurtavi hangomi faoliyati sohibkoron yo sarmoyaguzoron dar hududi davlathoi digar ba vujud omada metavonad. Foidai tijorat metavonad dar holati nomusoid gardidani vaziyati siyosi va iqtisodii hamon davlat past gardad. Talafot yo past shudani foidai tijorat metavonad bo sababhoi gunogun ba vujud oyad. Sababhoi asosii past shudani foidai tijorat inhoyand:

  1. Tagyir yoftani sokhti davlatdorii mamlakat;
  2. Musodira yo millikunonii obekthoi molikiyati khorijiyon;
  3. Nobudsozi yo vayron kardani obekti molikiyat dar natijai amaliyothoi harbi yo tazohurothoi shahrvandi;
  4. Tagyiryobii qonunguzorii mamuri va gayra: (gumruki, andozbandi va gayra).

Tavakkali siyosi qismi tarkibii tavakkali sugurtavi mahsub meyobad. Mohiyati on dar imkoniyati nopurra giriftani foida yo talafi molikiyati sarmoyaguzori khoriji yo sohibkor dar natijai tagir yoftani vaziyati ijtimoi – siyosi dar mamlakat inikos meyobad.

Dar boramon

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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