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MADANIYATI HALSI TOJIK DAR NIMAI DUYUMI ASRI XIX

Halki tochik sohibi madaniyati boyu kadima buda, doroi alomathoi demokrati meboshad. Ammo dar sharoiti zulmi mustamlikavi va feodali madaniyat ru ba tanazzul nihoda bud. Dar sharoiti mustamlikavi madaniyat va istedodi khalk taravdi karda natavonist. Madaniyat va zaboni khalkdoi milli harchoniba mahdud gashta, ba peshrafti marifat ba tavri suni khalal rasonda meshud.
Dar Osiyoi Miyona dar okhiri asri XIX, ba monandi peshtara, manbai marifat va madaniyat, maktab va madrasaho budand. Maktabho asosan dar nazdi maschidho amal mekardand. Baroi talimi farzandon az volidayn mablag va bakhshishhoi ziyod sitonida meshud. Talimgiri bo usuli koriyona az yod kardani matnhoi arabi meguzasht. Honandagon baroi az khud kardani hurufoti arabi nim sol vakt sarf mekardand. Badi on shogirdoni peshqadam matni arabii «Haftyak» – ro bo muallim hamovoz shuda takror mekardand. Badi on ba khondan va az yod kardani «CHorkitob» meguzashtand. In kor se sol vaktro megirift. Faqat pas az in tolibilmon ba omukhtani khatnavisi mashgul meshudand.
Ba mavchudiyati mikdori ziyodi maktabho nigoh nakarda, aholii Osiyoi Miyona, ba gayr az namoyandagoni ruhoniyon, tolibilmoni madrasaho va savdogaroni shahri, karib sarosar besavod budand.
Maktabhoi ibtidoii dini baroi madrasaho shogirdon tayyor mekardand. Madrasa yake az namudhoi avvalini donishkada, markazi tayyor kardani mutakhassisone bud, ki talim dar asosi hurufoti arabi ba roh monda shuda bud. Harchu kharochoti madrasa az hisobi khonandagon bud.
Tolibilmon dar madrasa istiqomat mekardand. Talim dar madrasa 18-20 sol davom mekard, ki dar in mudat zaboni arabi, tojiki, kuron va tafsiri on, mantiq, falsafa, tarikh, chugrofiya omukhta meshud.
Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX, barobari ba Turkiston omadani aholii rus, dar in jo maktabhoi ibtidoii rusi va gimnaziyaho paydo meshudand. Soli 1870 gubernator Abramov dar Samarqand avvalin maktabi rusii mahalliro kushod. Dar in maktab bachagoni mahali zaboni rusi va fanhoi malumoti umumiro meomukhtand. Dar maktab muallimoni rus dars meguftand. CHunin maktabho dar nokhiyahoi Tojikistoni imruza, ki ba hayati general – gubernatori Turkiston dokhil meshudand, tasis yoftand. Az jumla, dar soli 1895 dar Hujand, soli 1888 dar Uroteppa va soli 1909 dar Horug niz chunin maktabho kushoda shuda budand.
Baroi aholii kalonsol dar nazdi maktabhoi rusii mahali kurshoi shabona amal mekardand, ki dar on zaboni rusi omukhta meshud.
Dar barobari maktabho dar Osiyoi Miyona avvalin manbahoi madani-matbaa (soli 1868 dar Toshkand), kitobkhona (soli 1878) va digar nuktahoi madani paydo shudand.
Badi hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiyai podshokhi olimoni rus ba omukhtani tabiat, chugrofiya va tarikhu madaniyati Osiyoi Miyona sar kardand.
Olimoni rus P.P.Semyon – Tyan – SHanskiy, N.A.Seversev rastaniho, tabiat va olami hayvonoti Osiyoi Miyona, P.P. Fedchenko boigarii tabiii vodii Oloy, V.V.Mushketov geologiyai nohiyahoi kukhii Osiyoi Miyonaro omukhtand. Olimoni rus dar sharoiti dushvori berokhi, kuhhoi kasnoguzaru dashthoi tafsonro guzashta, joni khudro dar zeri khavfu khatar guzoshta, ekspeditsyahoi ilmiro tashkil mekardand.
Bo tashabbus A.P. Fedchenko va V.F.Oshanin dar solhoi 70-umi shubai mahallii jamiyati dustdoroni tabiatshinosi, antropologiya va mardumshinosi (etnografiya) tasis doda shud. Inchunin, jamiyati tekhniki rus, jamiyati Turkistonii tabii va ayraho tasis yofta budand. Hamagi dar Turkiston 15 chamiyati ilmi amal mekardand. Bo tashabbusi in chamiyatho nokhiyahoi durdasttarini kukhistoni Tochikistoni imruza mavridi tadkik karor giriftand. Bo rohbarii L.V. Oshanin ekspedisiyai antropologi ba Qarotegin va Pomir firistoda shud. A.E.Regel ba boloobi daryoi Panch, safar karda bud.
Dar solhoi minbad olimoni rus Seversev N.A., Semyonov P.P, Mushketov I.V., Grum – Grimaylova va digaron dar omukhtani sohahoi chudogonai ilm sakhmi bosazo guzoshtaand.

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