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Muhiti marketingii muassisahoi ilmi-tekhniki va qismhoi juzii on

Muhiti marketingi muassisahoi ilmi – tekhniki az qismihoi zerin iborat meboshad:

Muasisaho. Ba muassisahoi ilmi-tekhniki muhim ast, ki inhoro ba etibor girand:

  • tajhizot va adabiyoti ilmI baroi ba jo ovardani tadqiqoti ba naqsha giriftashuda muvofiqat mekunand va istifoda meshavand;
  • mavodi baroi tayyor kardani namunahoi laboratorI va tajribavI zarur istifoda meshavand;
  • ba istifodakunandai mahsuloti ilmI-tekhnikI mavodi baroi barorishi silsilagii mahsulot zarur istifoda meshavad.

Ittiloot dar borai firistodagon baroi donistani on, ki tadqiqoti mazkur metavonad amalan guzaronida shavad, muhim meboshad, hatto agar khudi aqida dar borai tadqiqot az jihati tijoratI jolib boshad ham, kor dar majmu, yo bo sababi mavjud nabudani mavodi zarurI tajhizot, asbobho va nomumkin budan ba dast ovardani onho, yo bo sababi arzishi favqullodda balandi firistonidanash, masalan, dar holati tibqi darkhost tayyor namudani tajhizot va dastgohhoi nodir, metavonad nobaror boshad.

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Raqibon. Ba inhisorchI (monopolist) budani muassisahoi ilmI- tekhnikI nigoh namuda, bo sababi mavjud budani imkoniyathoi az tarafi istehsolkunandagoni vatanI ba dast ovardani tekhnologiyahoi khorijI, qaziyai raqobat dar vaqthoi okhir bagoyat tezu tund meshavad. In tekhnologiyaho baroi ijozatnomadori khorijI nav nestand, vale nisbat ba mahsuloti khudii dar korkhona mavjud buda bartarI dorand.

Ba gayr az in, komyobii vositahoi moliyavi dar istehsolkunandagon ba paydoshavii namudi navi raqobat- raqobati bayni kharojot ba korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori shartnomavi va kharojot baroi digar maqsadho ovarda merasonad. Ba one, ki dar bolo zikr karda shud, metavon ilova namud, ki mahsuloti ilmi-tekhnikii aksar muassisahoi ilmi-tekhniki doroi khususiyati «qogazi» meboshad va binobar in bo korkardhoi korkhonahoe, ki chun qoida, ba «ohan» tajassum yoftaand, ba raqobat mepazirad.

Hamin tavr, muassisahoi ilmi-tekhniki boyad chor namudi asosii raqobatro ba hisob girand:

  • raqobat dar kharojot;
  • raqobat bo tekhnologiyahoi khoriji;
  • raqobat bo korkardhoi korkhonavi;
  • raqobat bo digar muassisahot ilmi-tekhnikii sohai yakkhela.

SHunavandagoni aloqavi (payvandi) SHunavandagoni aloqavi – inho guruhhoi mukhtalifi ba faoliyati muassisai ilmi-tekhniki tasirrasonanda meboshand. Vasoiti akhbori umum ba faoliyati muassisai ilmi-tekhniki ravshani meandozad. Ba sami doirai vasei shunavandagon rasonidani ittilooti guvoro dar borai muassisai ilmi-tekhniki, imkoniyathoi khosaisamaranokii tajribai sobiqi tatbiqi korkardho, tarafi muvaffaqiyatii faoliyat ba hisob meravad.

Binobar in muassisai ilmi-tekhniki bo vositai akhbori umum boyad har qadar zichtar hamkori kunad, dar zamina nufuzi muassisai dar dami peshrafti ilmi- tekhniki mavjudbudaro bunyod kunad.

Instituthoi moliyavi. Bo nazardoshti sarmoyatalabii ravandi ilmi, inchunin tuloniyati on, dar hajmi zaruri tamini muntazam bo sarmoya ahamiyati favquloddai muhim dorad.

Sarchashmahoi vositai moliyavi (ba gayr az khudi) metavonad pesh az hama bonkho, sahhomon, guruhho va fondhoi sarmoyaguzori, korkhonaho, istemolkunandagoni mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki boshand. Muassisai ilmi-tekhniki boyad bo tamomi rohhoi dastrasi ittilootro dar borai ustuvorii moliyaviash, samaranokii balandi iqtisodii loihahoi oyandai ilmi-tekhniki pahn namoyad, to ki sarmoyaguzoroni nerumandro (patensialiro) ba khudash jalb kunad.

Muassisahoi hukumati. Vakolati qabuli qarorhoro, ki ijroyashon baroi muassisahoi ilmi-tekhniki hatmist (farmoishho va qarorhoi umumiiqtisodi, sanadhoi meyori va direktivi va gayraho) dorand. Muassisai ilmi-tekhniki boyad dar borai sanadhoi qabulshuda ittilooti aniq doshta boshad, inchunin haddulimkon oid ba qarorhoi tayyorshudaistoda, ki ba faoliyati u dakhl dorand, malumot ba dast ovarad.

Ba gayr az in, (tavassuti assotsiatsiya va ittihodiyahoi mukhtalif) boyad ba qabuli qonunu farmoishhoi baroi korkhona manfiatkhoh noil gardid.

Guruhhoi shahrvandii amaliyot- inho tashkilothoi mukhtalifi jamiyati meboshand, ki oid ba hifzi baze taqsimoti voqean barguzorgashta va yo tayyorshudaistoda dar jodahoi mukhtalifi faoliyati hayoti (harakatho ba hifzi muhiti atrof, ittifoqhoi istemolkunandagon va gayraho), yo in ki dar barobari onho,faoliyati muayyanro ba amal mebarorand.

Muassisai ilmi-tekhniki, bo in guruhho aksulamal namuda, az tarafi onho dastgiri namudani khudashro, az jumla tadqiqothoi burdaistodaashro, metavonad tamin namoyad. Ba gayr az in, in imkon medihad, ki sohasoi tadqiqote, ki az tarafi guruhhoi mazkur dastgiri meyoband, peshbini karda shavad. Dar in asos metavon

mablagtaminkuni ba dast ovarda shavad. Masalan, az vositai fondhoi mukhtalife, ki bo faoliyati in yo on guruh aloqamandand, inchunin az manbahoi hukumati.

SHunavandagoni aloqavii mahalli. Korkhona va muassisai dilkhoh ba qalamravi mushakhkhas vobasta ast, bo istiqomatkunandagoni mahal aloqai muayyan dorad.

Vase namudani maydonhoi obekthoi istehsoli, tajribavi va digarho metavonad norozigii mardumi mahalliro ba miyon ovarad va ziyoda az in, agar in obektho shubharo oid ba ifloskunii muhiti atrof paydo namoyand. Ziddiyatho, baraks, metavonand vobasta ba pushida shudani korkhona, bakhshho va gayra ba miyon oyand, zero in holat ba az dast raftani joyhoi kori ovarda merasonad.

Binobar in muassisai ilmi-tekhniki dar borai khudash dar bayni shunavandagoni mahalli boyad tasavvuroti guvoro ba vujud orad, ki in ba tamini kadri az hisobi khatmkunandagoni maktabhoi olii mahalli, az bayn burdani ziddiyathoi imkonpaziri qalamravi va bo muvaffaqiyat hal kardani yak qator masalahoi digar musoidat khohad kard.

Mushtariyoni muassisai ilmi-tekhniki, hamchun qoida, korkhonahoi istehsoli meboshand. Ba muassisai ilmi-tadqiqoti zarur ast, ki omilhoi hamdarknamoi natijahoi tadqiqoti mushakhkhasro az tarafi korkhonaho paydo namoyad. Dar ayni zamon muhimiyati mahz omilhoi darkkuni khele baland meboshad, ki nomguyi mukhtasari onho dar zer ovarda meshavad.

Sababhoi taraqqiyoti nokofii korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori (shartnomavi va dokhili) dar bakhshi istehsoli:

  • korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori zarur nestand;
  • Havasmandi va raqobat ba korkhona dar samti faoliyatkunii beshtar samaranok fishor nameovarand;
  • Tekhnologiyai kompleksi (paketi) vorid meshavad;
  • SHirkathoi khoriji va korkhonahoi mushtarak ba KITTK-i shirkathoi modari umed mebandand;
  • Ba korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori ba khudashon muvofiq namebinand;
  • SHirkatho ba loihahoi kutohmuddati tijorati ruy meorand;
  • Norasogiho dar rushdi zersokhtor;
  • Ba tavri nokofi ruy ovardani tijorat ba bozori khoriji;
  • Siyosati andoz guzaronidani korhoi ilmI-tadqiqotI va tajribaviyu konstruktorI -ro, az on jumla shartnomaviro havasmand namegardonad.

Omilhoi demografi. Zaruriyati tatbiqi navovarihoi mehnatsarfakunanda mavjud ast. Azbaski omili mazkur dar mintaqahoi mukhtalif ba tavri gunogun khudro nishon medihad, muassisai ilmi-tekhniki boyad gunoguniyati nohiyavii istemolkunandagonashro ba nazar girad. Dar baze mintaqaho ziyodatii aholii qobili mehnat imkon dorad. Dar in jo, navovariho, baraks, metavonand ba bunyod kardani joyhoi ilovagii korI ravona karda shuda boshand.

Norasogii aholii qobili mehnat omili asosii pastshavii istehsolot (dar janbai darozmuddat) meboshad. Binobar in ahamiyati digar khelhoi innovatsioniro kohish nadoda, dar in jo beshtar muvofiqi maqsad budani navovarihoi ba past kardani mehnattalabii mahsulot ravona kardashudaro boyad ba inobat girift.

Omilhoi iqtisodi. Dar bayni guruhi mazkuri omilho baroi muassisai ilmI-tekhnikI inho beshtar ahamiyatnokand:

  • mavqei moliyavI va tagyiroti istemolkunandagoni istehsolI va nihoI;
  • tagyiroti mayli istemolkunandagoni istehsolI ba andukht ba ravona kardani mablagho baroi guzaronidani korhoi ilmI-tadqiqotI va tajribaviyu konstruktorI umuman va az on jumla shartnomavI;
  • tagyiroti narkhho va muzdi kor;
  • arzishi qarz;
  • vaziyati umumiiqtisodi dar mamlakat, pastravi, depressiya, boloravi.

Tagyiroti daromadi istemolkunandagoni istehsolii mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki ba hajmi darkhostho oid ba qarordodho, tasiri bagoyat 231

purzur merasonad. Jarayoni inkishofi daromadi istemokunandagoni nihoi, yane aholi imkoniyati kharidorii tekhnikai garonbaho va murakkabi maishiro muayyan mekunad, az in sabab, ba imkoniyathoi bozori mahsuloti ilmi-tekhnikii baroi bunyodi namunahoi navi tekhnikai mazkur ravona kardashuda tasir merasonad.

Mavjudiyati vositaho hanuz manoi ba samthoi az istemoli jori farqkunanda istifoda burdani onhoro nadorad. Dar sharoiti tavarrum, balandravii narkhho va muzdi kor manfiathoi kutohmuddat dar nizomi manfiathoi korkhona bolo megirand. Hudi hamin omilho ba afzoishi kharojot baroi bunyodi mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki tasir merasonand. Hamin «takyakuni» bar zakhirahoi mahdudi pulii baroi pushonidani onho ravonakardashuda ogoz menamoyad.

YAke az rohhoi az chunin holat baromadan, korkardi mahsuloti bisyormaqsadai ilmi-tekhniki, ki metavonad bisyor marotiba istehsol karda shavad, meboshad.

Va albatta, chunin mahsulot boyad baroi ba dast ovardani tasmimoti samaranoki nosarmoyatalab dar istehsolot ravona karda shavad. Talaboti hammonand ba mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki qarzi garonbaho va pastraviro dar iqtisodiyot peshnihod mekunad.

Omilhoi muhiti tabii. Norasogii zakhiraho, qimmat gardidani onho darkhostro ba tekhnologiyahoi mavod va nerusarfkunanda muayyan mekunand va binobar in zaminahoi baland gardidani darkhostro ba natijai korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori, ki ba bunyodi tekhnologiyai navi hamin qobil ravona karda shudaand, ba vujud meovarand.

Samti digari samaranokii korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori dar sharoiti norasogii zakhiraho, bunyodi mavodi nav va ivazkunii mavodhoi tabii musoidatkunanda meboshad.

Omilhoi ilmi-tekhniki. Baroi muassisai ilmi-tekhniki ba samthoi oyandadori tadqiqot dar doirai takhassusash «navishta shudan»- ash bagoyat muhim meboshad. In samthoro donistan, vositahoro ba 232

jamovarii ittilooti ilmi-tekhnikii dakhldor guzashtan, dar konfronshoi ilmii kasbi shirkat varzidan, korkardhoi lozimai durnamoiro guzaronidan zarur meboshad.

Nuqtai digari muhim- ba nazar giriftani siyosati davlatii rushdi innovatsioni, barnomaho va afzaliyatho, jiddu jahdro boyad ba ishtirok dar in barnomaho va guzaronidani korho dar samthoi afzaliyatnok ravona meboshad. In imkon medihad, ki yakum, mablagtaminkunii ilovagi ba dast ovarda shavad, duyum, tamoilhoi peshrafti ilmi-tekhniki durust zeri nazar girifta shavand vabaroi korkardi naslhoi oyandai innovatsionii istehsoli qismi korho ijro karda shavad.

Qismatkunii (ba segmentho judokunii) bozori mahsuloti ilmi- tekhniki. Segmenti bozor in guruhi istemolkunandagoni ba in va yo on majmui havasmandihoi bedorkunandai marketing yak khel tavajjuhkunanda meboshad. Mutobiqat – in ravandi judo kardani istemolkunandagon ba guruhhoi muayyani ba afzaliyathoi istemoli farqkunanda meboshad.

Sababhoi qismatkunii bozorhoi istehsolii mahsuloti ilmi- tekhniki:

prinsipi jugrofi ba nohiyahoi alohidai ba talabotashon ba mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki farqkunanda taqsim kardani bozorro dar nazar dorad. Baroi bozori mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki taqsimoti mintaqavi baso muhim ast, zero istemolkunandagoni mintaqavii mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki bisyor sohaho va makhsusan mahsuloti nihoi, bo talaboti istemolii az tarafi onho peshnihodshavanda farq mekunand.

Dar mavridi  qismatkunii  jugrofi boyad ham janbai dokhilidavlati va ham baynalmillali ba nazar girifta shavad. Ba gayr az in, baroi mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki joygirkunii jugrofi ham istemolkunandagoni bevosita, natijahoi khosai faoliyati innovatsioni va ham mahsuloti dar asosi onho tayyor kardashuda muhim ast. Agar az bobi khosa korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori harf zada shavad, ongoh dar in janba ba nazar giriftani sathi umumii ilmi-tekhnikii mintaqa, darajai ikhtisosi kadrhoi muhandisi-tekhniki dar korkhonahoi mintaqa, raqobat az tarafi muassisahoi ilmi-tekhnikii dar mintaqa joygirshuda, raqobati tekhnologiyai digar davlatho dar mintaqa muhim meboshad;

  • prinsipi mahsuloti-sohavi baroi muassisahoi ilmi-tekhnikii bisyorsamtai dar sohahoi mukhtalif korkunanda va inchunin muassisahoi mahsuloti ilmi-tekhnikii tainoti bisyormaqsadaro baroranda makhsusan muhim meboshad. Ba tavri umumi sohahoi suzishvori-energetiki, moshinsozi, sanoati kimiyo, metalgudozi va digar sohahoi bakhshi istehsoli, tandurusti va digar sohahoi bakhshi gayriistehsoliro metavon judo kard. Dar dokhili har kadom guruhhoi nombarshuda zersohahoi sershumor mavjudand, ki shumoraashon baroi har kadom muassisai ilmi-tekhniki khosa meboshad.
  • prinsipi funksionali– istemolkunandagoni mahsuloti ilmi- tekhniki metavonand, tibqi funksiyahoi ijro kunandaashon guruhbandi karda shavand. Muassisai ilmi-tekhniki metavonad korkardhoro baroi mahsuli mushakhkhas, masalan, tajhizoti barqi baroi vagonhoi metro ba roh monad, inchunin metavonad mahsuloti mukhtalifi tahti funksiyai umumi muttahidshudaro dar bar girad.
  • prinsipi fanni – istemolkunandagoni mahsuloti ilmi- tekhniki metavonand baroi tadqiqot dar fonhoi mushakhkhas, masalan chunin fanho ba monandi riyoziyot, fizika, kimiyo, biologiya va gayraho darkhost peshnihod namoyand. Istemolkunandagoni tadqiqoti fannii yakkhela mahsuloti mukhtalifro istehsol khohad kard, funksiyahoi gunogunro ijro khohand namud. Umumiyat baroi onho fanhoi ilmiand, ki boisi maroq zohir kardan gardidaand.
  • prinsipi qaziyavi– qaziyahoi (masoili) ilmi chun qoida, baynifanniro dorand. Har yak qaziyai ilmi metavonad tavajjuhi istemolkunandagoni mukhtalifro ba khud jalb namoyad.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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