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Paydoish va inkishofi psikhologiyai ilmi

Tahavvuloti bisyorasrai afkori mukhtalifi falsafiyu ijtimoi va tabiatshinosi dar okhiri asri XIX imkoniyat faroham ovard, oshkor gardad. Haqiqati psikhiki chun predmeti tadqiqoti ilmi muvofiqi aqidai psikholog va tarikhnigori rus M.G.YAroshevskiy bar poyai panj samti inkishofi donishhoi ilmi ustuvor ast.Samti avval bo nomi tabiatshinosoni nemis G.F.Gelmgolts, E.G.Veber, G.T.Fekhner va olimi gollandi F.Donders aloqamand ast. Onho avvalin shuda dar tadqiqi ehsos, hassosi va aksulamali organizm usulhoi tahlili eksperimentali va matematikiro istifoda namudand. Mahz dastovardhoi in olimon ba V.Vundt imkoniyat dodand, ki avvalin ozmoishgohi psikhologiro bunyod kunad. Samti duvum az talimoti tahavvulotii tabiatshinosi anglis CH.Darvin sarchashma megirad, ki bo oshkor namudani qonuniyathoi umumii inkishofi hayot, az jumla dar fahmishi inkishofi tarikhii psikhika navigarihoi kulliro jori namud. Samti seyumro olimi digari anglis F.Galton asos guzosht. U soli 1884 avvalin laboratoriyai antropometriro tasis dod, ki yake az maqsadhoi on jamovarii malumoti omori dar borai qobiliyathoi odamon bud. Bo in maqsad, olim bo 10 000 nafar odam tajriba guzaronid. Hamin tavr Galton ba psikhologiya usulhoi korkardi omoriro vorid sokht, ki minbad dar omuzishi masalai tafovuti infirodii bayni damon vase istifoda burda shud. Samti chahorum az omuzishi psikhonevrozho va gipnotizm ogoz yoftaast. Dar in samt J.Bred va digaron asosguzor budand. Samti panjum az jonibi fiziologi rus I.M.Sechenov (1829-1905) asos guzoshta shudaast, ki ba aqidahoi reflektori takya karda,sistemai navi afkori psikhologiro ba miyon ovard. Dar asosi tahlili dastovardhoi ilmi psikhologiyai
muosir, ilova ba samthoi muayyannamudaiM.G.YAroshevskiy, samti digari inkishofi donishhoi il-
mii psikhologiro peshnihod kardan mumkin ast, ki on ham boshad omuzishi beshuuri va rohu usulhoi tahlili on ast.In samtro bo korhoi psikhiatr va psikhologi avstriyagi Z.Freyd (1856-1939) va payravoni u aloqamand donistan mumkin ast. YAke az samthoi asosii inkishofi psikhologiyai ilmi donistani talimoti Z.Freyd komilan odilonaast, zero sahmi olim dar inkishofi psikhologiya be-
guftugu buzurg buda, talimoti u doir ba beshuuri va maylhoi beshuurona ba halli doirai vasei masalahoi psikhologi musoidat namudand. In shash samti inkishofi donishhoi ilmi imkoniyat
dodand, ki haqiqati psikhiki dar zamoni muosir ba predmeti marifati ilmi tabdil yobad. Dar zaminai in psikhologiya az majmui donishhoi nazariyavi-falsafi ba ilmi amali-eksperimentali mubaddal gasht, ki predmeti mushakhkhasi tadqiqoti, metodho va metodologiyai asosnoki khudro dorad. Paydoishi psikhologiyai ilmiro bo tasisyobi va faoliyati ozmoishgohi avvalini psikhologi aloqamand medonand, ki soli 1879 dar shahri Leybsigi Olmon bo ibtikori faylasuf va psikhologi nemis Vilgelm Vundt (1832-1920) bunyod yoftaast. Ammo sokhtani asoshoi ilmi va korkardi masalahoi asosii khud psikhologiya dar asri XXshuru namudaast. Hamin tavr chunone, ki psikhologi nemis G.Ebbingauz (1850-1909) qayd mekunad «psikhologiya guzashtai boy, vale tarikhi nihoyat kutoh dorad». Bo vujudi ilmi javon budan psikhologiya zud inkishof meyobad. Taraqqiyoti bosurati on dar davomi ziyoda az sad soli okhir imkoniyat dod, ki in ilm mavqei khudro dar sistemaiilmho mustahkam namuda, predmet va vazifahoi khudro muayyan va aniq kunad. Metodhoi gunoguni tadqiqotiro kor karda baroyad. Ayni zamon psikhologiya dar bayni se guruhi ilmho:
falsafi, tabiatshinosi va ilmhoi ijtimoi mavqei mobayniro ishgol menamoyad. Vazifahoi muhimi psikhologiya dar sistemai donishhoi ilmi az on iborat ast, ki vay dar yak darajai muayyan dastovardhoi yak qator sohahoi ilmro tahlil namuda, bo iborai psikhologi rus B.F.Lomov (1927-1989) «integrator», yane yakjoyakunandai tamomi on sohahoi ilmi meboshad, ki obekti omuzishashonro odam tashkil medihad.Robitai psikhologiya bo ulumi falsafi reshahoi qadimi dorad. Avvalin donishhoi psikhologiro dar osorifaylasufon paydo namudan mumkin ast. Hudi psikhologiya to zamoni nav dar hayati falsafa arzi hasti namudaast. Masalahoi muhimi psikhologiyai muosir niz az masalaguzorihoi falsfa sarchashma megirand.Aloqai psikhologiya bo guruhi ilmhoi tabiatshinosi niz khele nazdik va zich ast. Mahz in aloqa ba psikhologiya imkoniyat faroham ovard, ki hamchun ilmi tajribavi inkishof yobad. Istifodai metodi ozmoish, ki az zamoni G.Fekhner to imruz yake az usulhoi asosii tadqiqoti psikhologi hisobida meshavad, natijai in ittihod meboshad. Hamchunin qayd kardan lozim ast, ki aqidahoi tahavvulotii CH.Darvin, nazariyai reflektorii I.M.Sechenov va talimoti I.P.Pavlov, ki dar doirai ilmhoi tabiatshinosi inkishof yoftaand, dar tashakkuli ilmi psikhologiya sahmi buzurg guzoshtaand. Robitai psikhologiya bo ilmhoi ijtimoi ahamiyati amalii onro ifoda mekunad. Haminro qayd kardan kifoya ast, ki psikhologiyai muosir taqriban dar tamomi sohahoi
hayoti ijtimoi ba sifati ilmi amali istifoda burda meshavad.

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Tashakkul va inkishofi guruh hamchun kollektiv

Az tahlilhoi psikhologii dar bolo kardashuda doir ba guruh hamchun kollektiv barmeoyad, ki har qadare, ki guruh …

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