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Psikhologiyai avrupoii asrhoi XVII – XVIII

Inkishofi donishi tajribavi talab menamud, ki ba

joi metodi skholastii ta-
fakkur metodi nav mamul shavad. Makhsusan, taraqqiyoti
donishhoi anatomiyu psikhologi dar borai sokht, kori
jism, ba vujud omadani kashfiyotu ikhtirootho fahmishi
ruhro mazmunan digar kard. Faylasufi anglis F.Bekon
(1561-1626) saromadi materializmi zamoni nav buda, rohi
navi tadqiqi ruhro ba roh mond. U davat namud, ki ba
tadqiqi empirikii protsesshoi ruhi boyad guzasht.
Tadqiqothoi F.Bekon baroi paydoishi ilmi nav doir ba
shuur zamina guzasht. U andeshai ilmi yagonaro dar borai
odam inkishof medihad, ki qismi asosii onro psikhologiya
tashkil medihad. Talimot dar borai odam, muvofiqi F.
Bekon, az du qismat iborat ast: yake az onho insonro hamin
tavre, ki hast, dida mebaroyad; duyumash-munosibati uro ba
jamiyat. YAkumashro filosofiyai odam nomid va duyumash-
ro filosofiyai shahrvandi. U ba odam naturalistona mu-
nosibat mekunad va vobasta ba qismhoi tarkibii inson
(jism va ruh), du ilmro judo kard: ilm dar boraii ruh va
ilm dar borai jism. YAgonagii in ilmho va aloqamandia-
shon ba tashakkuli hayoti solim imkoniyat medihand.

F.Bekon qayd mekunad, ki ilm boyad ba faktho asos
yoband va baroi aniq kardani onho chunin metodhoi induk-
tiviro peshnihod namudaast: mushohida, tahlil, muqoisa
va tajriba. Tajriba dar surate donishi saheh doda meta-
vonad, ki agar shuur az «shabahi» qalbaki forig boshad.
«SHabahhoi avlod» galathoeand, ki inson dar borai tabi-
at az rui namunai hayoti odamon mulohiza meronand; «sha-
bahhoi gor»-in galathoi fardiand, ki ba tarbiya, tabu
zavq, odati odamoni judogona vobastaand; «shabahhoi bo-
zor»-in odati be mulohizai tanqidi istifoda kardani
aqidahoi mamul ast; «shabahhoi teatr» bo etiqodi kur-
kurona ba mutabaron aloqamandand. Ba aqidai yagon
shakhsi mutabar istinod nakardanro prinsipi asosii
ilmi medonist. F. Bekon payravi prinsiphoi materia-
listi boshad ham, ba mavjudiyati khudo iqror bud va qonu-
niyathoi hayoti jamiyatiro umuman idealistona sharh me-
dod.

ayyan mekardand. R. Dekart aksariyati asoshoi matematika

Agar F. Bekon ba tadqiqi metodi
empiriyu tajribavii tabiat pardokhta
boshad, pas olimu faylasufi fransuz R.
Dekart (1596-1650) baraks, khiradro ba
maddi avval guzoshta, roli tajribaro
az sanjishi oddii malumoti intellekt
iborat kunand. kushish mekard, ki naza-
riyai ratsionalizmro ba asos girifta,
baroi hamai ilmho metodi universali
ofarad. Ratsionalizmi u boshad dar
maynai sari inson ideyahoi modarzodi-
yaro ravo medonist,ki in ideyaho
natijai donishro az bisyor jihatho mu-
va mantiqro az jumlai ideyahoi modarzodi medonist.

R. Dekart dar kitobi khudi «Ragbathoi ruhi»
masalahoi psikhologiro dida mebaroyad. U ba boetimo-
dii olami hissi shubha mekunad. Mo ba onho az rui
malumothoi uzvhoi hissi baho medihem, ki aksar moro
fireb medihand. R. Dekart ba tafakkur takya namuda, onro
amali sof ruhi va gayrimoddi mepindorad. In khulosaro
hamasroni u qabul nakardand. Masalan, T. Gabbs meguyad,
ki «man fikr mekunam, pas ba khulosa omadan mumkin ast,
ki ashyoi fikrkunanda jismi ast va naboyad ba khulosa omad,
ki substansiyai gayrimoddi meboshad» – (A.N. Jdan. Is-
toriya psikhologii-M.: MGU, 1990. – S. 78)

Jismi hayvonu odamro R.Dekart hamchun fizik baho
medod. Hamai harakathoi mo va garmi az fikr novobasta-
and va ba jism taalluq dorand. Az in ru «khatoi buzurg»
ast, ki agar protsesshoi harakat va garmi bo ruh
aloqamand karda shavad va dar robita bo in meguyad:
«Marg hej vaqt bo gunohi ruh ba amal nameoyad, balki bo
sababi barham khurdani yagon qismati asosii badan ruy
medihad» «A.N. Jdan. Istoriya psikhologii – M.: MGU,
1990. – S. 80).

Hayvonot, ba aqidai R.Dekart, ruh nadorand. Hamai
murakkabihoero, ki dar raftori hayvonot mushohida me-
kunem, hatto dar hayvonoti olitashkil, on avtoma-
tizmhoi tabiat meboshand. U yak chizro takid mekunad, ki
hayvonot fikr namekunand, zero onho nomukammaland va
zabon nadorand. Az in ru meguyad, ki «hayvonot aqlu khirad
nadorand va tabiat dar onho muvofiqi joygirshavii
uzvhoyashon amal mekunad, chi nave, ki soat az charkhu pru-
jina iborat astu vaqtro aniq nishon medihad va chen me-
kunad nisbat ba mo, ki bo aqlamon in korro ijro meku-
nem» «A.N. Jdan. Istoriya psikhologii-M.: MGU, 1990. –
S. 83).

R.Dekart talimoti ratsionalistiro doir ba
ragbatho peshbari mekunad. Ragbatro hamchun hissiyot baho
doda, sarchashmai zuhuroti onro az predmetu hodisahoi
olami beruna medonad. Ba ragbatho zuhuroti beikhtiyori
khos ast va tanho fikr onhoro idora mekunadu tarbiya me-
namoyad. R.Dekart ragbathoi avvalin va duyuminro farq
mekunad. Ragbathoi avvalin dar ruh hangomi bo jism
payvast shudanashon zohir meshavand va onho shash
qismand: hayrat, khohish, muhabbat. nafrat, shodi, gussa.
Vazifai in ragbatho az on iborat ast, ki ba ruh az on khu-
sus chi khub ast va chi ba dast, khabar medihand. Boqimonda
ragbatho duyumin shumorida meshavand. Ragbatho na tanho
khubi meovarand, balki manbai badi ham meboshand. Az in
ru, masalai tarbiyai ragbathoro takid mekunad. Tajri-
baro vositai behtarini idorakunii ragbatho mehisobad.
Odam boyad dar zindagi muvofiqi qoidai muayyan raftor
kardanro yod girad va ba on odat kunad.

Janbai materialistii talimoti R. Dekartro fay-
lasufi niderlandi B. Spinoza (1632-1677) inkishof dod,
ki vay ba dualizm monizmi materialistiro muqobil gu-
zasht. Asari asosii B. Spinoza «Etika» ba shumor mera-
vad va raviyai akhloqiro dorad. U dar in kitob masalai
munosibati fardi namudanro bo inson tahlil namuda,
baroi rohi hayoti ozodonaro yoftan ba odamon maslihatu
tavsiyahoi ilmii sudmand medihad. B. Spinoza talimoti
monistiro kor karda baromad va dar aqida ast, ki yak sub-
stansiya vujud dorad va hamai chizro bo vositai khudash
baho dodan mumkin ast. Zarurati mavjudiyati ashyoro dar
khudash justuju kardan zarur ast. Hamin tavr, u mafhumhoi
«mohiyat» va «mavjudiyat»-ro farq mekunad. Mohiyat-in
tavsifdihandai ashyo ast, be on ashyo khud ba khud vujud do-
shta nametavonad.

B. Spinoza tabiatro bo khudo monand mekard va
meguft, ki on khususiyati mustaqiliro dorad. Agar
R.Dekart mavjudiyati materiyaro amali ejodiyoti khudoy
donad, on goh B.Spinoza takid mekunad, ki tabiat ba khu-
do ehtiyoj nadorad. U tabiatro khudovu khudoro tabiat me-
nomid.

B. Spinoza oid ba masalai marifat va affektho
andesharoni namuda, chor vositai hosil namudani do-
nishro muayyan kardaast: a) az ruyi shunidaho yo az ruyi
yagon alomati ikhtiyori; b) az tajribai betartibonai gay-
richashmdosht; v) bo rohi az kull ba juz khulosabarori
namudan; g) idroki bevositai mohiyati ashyo tavassuti sa-
babhoi nazdiktarini on. Dar «Etika» in rohhoi do-
nishhosilkuni dar se guruh tahlili khudro paydo namuda-
and. Du rohi avval guruhi avvalro tashkil medihand va on
andesha va khayol meboshand, ki dar shakli obrazho vujud
dorand. In donishi khirai bargalat ast. Guruhi duyumro
aql tashkil medihad, ki on ideyahoi umumiro dar borai
khosiyathoi mohiyatdori ashyo medihad va on ba ilm takya me-
kunad. Guruhi seyumro marifati intuitivi (farosat)
tashkil medihad. Dar in holat khosiyathoi mohiyatdor bo
khususiyathoi fardii ashyo dar yagonagi meboshand. Hamin
tavr, B. Spinoza harakati marifatro az abstraksiya ba
konkret mebinad, ki minbad materializmi dialektiki
onro inkishof dod.

Faylasufi anglis J.Lokk (1632-1704) asosguzori
psikhologiyai empiriki buda, asari falsafiash «Tajriba
doir ba aqli insoni» uro boz ham mashhurtar gardond.
Tarjumai on ba zaboni fransavi dar inkishofi falsafa
va psikhologiyai fransavi naqshi muhim bozid. U nuqtai
nazariyai «ideyahoi modarzodi»-ro rad karda, gumon dosht,
ki mo tamomi donishamonro az tajriba va ehsos hosil me-
namoem. Odamon az shikami modar bo goyahoi tayyor ba dunyo
nameoyand. Sari kudaki navzod takhtai tozaest, ki hayot dar
rui on naqshahoi khud-donishro sabt menamoyad. Hamin
tavr Lokk, baraksi ratsionalizmi R. Dekart, sensua-
lizmro asosnok kard. Agar chize pesh ehsos nashuda boshad,
pas dar yod ham nameshavad,-in ast tezisi asosii Lokk.
Ehsos zeri tasiri chizhoi beruni hosil meshavad. In
tajribai beruni ast. Faoliyati khud va tarzhoi zuhuroti
onro mushohida kardani magzi sar tajribai botini- re-
fleksiya ast. Pas J. Lokk manbai yakumi donishhosilkuni-
ro agar dar tajriba va duyumashro dar ehsos dida boshad,
on goh seyumashro dar refleksiya mebinad. Refleksiya in
idroki botinii mo-aql ast. Obekti asosii onho ideyahoi
pesh hosil shuda buda, organash faoliyati aqli mo ast va
samaraash ideyahoi nav meboshand. Tajribai botiniero, ki
Lokk muayn kard, ba paydoishi raviyai introspeksiya asos
guzosht.

J. Lokk paydoishi ideyahoro dar assotsiatsiyaho did.
U shakhsi avvalin ast, ki mafhumi «assotsiatsiyai ideyaho»-
ro peshnihod dar ilm namudaast. Fikrho va hodisaho dar
asosi aloqaho ba vujud meoyand. In aloqaho tavassuti
tarbiya va odatkuniho paydo meshavand va bo mururi za-
mon barham mekhurand. Vazifai tarbiya az on iborat me-
shavad, ki dar kudakon paydo shudani aloqahoi nomatlub
dar shuurashon peshgiri karda shavad. Dar zaminai in me-
khanizm raviyai navi psikhologiyai assotsiativi tashakkul
yoftan girift.

Faylasufi nemis G.Leybnits (1646-1716) ideyahoi
idealizmi obektivii Aflotunro inkishof dodaast va
inchunin yak qator aqidahoi komili dialektikiro bayon
namudaast. Leybnits G. chunin aqidaro peshnihod menamo-
yad, ki ruh va jism har yake ba khudashon khos qonuniyathoro
dorand va mahz ba onho itoat mekunand. Az in ru, muvo-
fiqati mutlaqi ruhu jism hej vaqt nameshavad va faqat
bayni onho garmoniyaro (mutanosibi) ba vujud ovardan
mumkin astu khalos.

G.Leybnits modarzodi budani ideyahoi intellektua-
liro tarafdori mekunad. Ehsos agar az nazari Lokk pas-
siv boshad, on goh muvofiqi talimoti Leybnits G., dar
ehsosho faoli niz mavjud ast, ki tufayli onho idroki
purrai predmet ba amal meoyad. U makhsusan appersepsiyaro
ba asos girifta, onro meyori asosii ehsosu idrok meshu-
morad.

Psikhologiyai anglis dar asri XVIII az empirizmi
J.Lokk ba sui assotsianizm dar osori J.Berkli (1685-
1753) va D.YUm (1711-1776) inkishof yoft. J.Berkli payra-
vi J.Lokk bud va az sensualizm ba idealizmi subektivi
mayl namud. U dar kitobi khud «Tajribai nazariyai navi
binoi» (1709) takid menamoyad, ki faoliyati ehsosi bi-
noi zimni assotsiatsiyaho ba amal meoyad. Berkli ob-
razhoi binoiro bo zabon muqoisa mekunad: bosira baroi
lomisa zabon ast va mazmuni tajribai binoiro ifoda
mekunad. Aqidahoi Berkli dar psikhologiyai empirikii
asri XIX inkishof doda shudand.

Anglis Duyum payravi J.Berkli buda, dar risolai
khud «Risola dar baroi tabiati odam» (1739) va kitobash
«Tadqiqi shuuri inson» (1748) masalai assotsiatsiyaro
inkishof dod. U protsessi marifatro ba assotsiatsiyaho
vobasta kard. D.YUm hamai holathoi shuurro ba «taassu-
rot» va «ideyaho» taqsim namud. Ideyaho taassurothoi past
meboshand va onhoro dar tafakkuru muhokima istifoda
mebarand. Ideyaho sodda va murakkab meshavand. Ideyahoi
murakkab bo rohi assotsiatsiya ba amal meoyand va asosi
tafakkuri ilmiro tashkil medihand. Assotsiatsiyaho mu-
nosibathoi sababivu natijaviro dar hodisaho inikos
menamoyand. Masalan, D.YUm chunin tahlil menamoyad: «non
moro ser kard. Non amalero ijro mekunad, ki on ser kar-
dan ast. Minbad ham in obekt sababi amal meshavad va
natijai on seri ast. Hamin tavr, bovari hosil meshavad,
ki chunin obekthoi oyanda chunin amalhoero ba vujud
meovarand, ki yake sababi digare meshavand». Prinsipi
asosi dar chunin khulosabaroriho odatho yo khud prinsipi
assotsiatsiya ba shumor meravad.

Namoyandai marufi raviyai materialisti dar psi-
khologiyai assotsiativii asri XVIII dukhturi anglis David
Gartli (1705-1757) bud. U ba tasavvurothoi fizikii
I.Nyuton takya namuda, mekhanizmhoi fiziologii prot-
sesshoi ruhiro muayyan kard. Ba aqidai u, hamai qobili-
yathoi ruhii odam az magzi sar vobasta ast. Hayoti ruhii
inson dar asosi assotsiatsiyaho surat megirad. Aloqahoi
asabi asosi protsesshoi khotir, khayol, ehsos, mafhum,
muhokima, harakathoi ikhtiyori va affekthoro tashkil
medihand. Masalan, namudi odam moro ba ideyai nomi u
mebarad. Gartli qayd mekunad, ki kalima vazifai
marifatiro ijro mekunad va inchunin irodaviro. Masa-
lan, avvalan kalonsolon dar kudakon aloqaro bayni ka-
lima va raftoru kirdorashon ba vujud meovarand, sipas
onho in raftorro tufayli irodai khud sodir mekunand.
Pas, vazifai tarbiya dar on ast, ki in aloqahoro mu-
stahkamu ustuvor gardonad.

Masalai ragbat dar psikhologiyai Gartli joyi
muhimro ishgol mekunad. U ragbathoro hamchun quvvai
harakatdihandai raftor dida mebaroyad. Ragbathoi khubu
badi modarzodi vujud nadorand. Ragbatho natijai tarbiya
buda, dar asosi mekhanizmi assotsiatsiya zohir meshavand.
Boyad qayd kard, ki talimoti Gartli dar zaminai prin-
sipi determinizm (sababiyat) ba vujud omadaast.

Hamin tariq, psikhologiyai assotsiativi hamchun
nazariyae qabul shud, ki on dar inkishofi psikhikii oda-
mon va idorakunii raftori onho naqshi muhimro bozid.

Dar boramon

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Tashakkul va inkishofi guruh hamchun kollektiv

Az tahlilhoi psikhologii dar bolo kardashuda doir ba guruh hamchun kollektiv barmeoyad, ki har qadare, ki guruh …

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