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Sokhti idorai Mamuri-Siyosi.

To okhiri solhoi 60-umi asri XIX dar khududi Bukhoroi SHarki yakchand hokimiyati feodalii mustakilu nimmustakil vuchud dosht, ki bo mururi zamon ba tabiati amorati Bukhoro hamroh karda shudand. Ba onho nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikiston az chumla Hisor, Kulob, Qabodiyon, Qabodiyon. Qaroteginu Davoz dokhil meshudand. Hokimiyat dar in mulkho ba tavri merosi bayakdigar meguzasht. Hokimiyati idorakuni vositai asosii istismor va pakhsh namudani muborizahoi mehnatkashon ba shumor meraft. Badi hamroh va yo istilo shudani in nohiyaho bo hayati idorai mamurii onho digarguniho dokhil karda shudand, tamomi amorat ba bekigariho taqsim shuda bud. Dar mintaqahoi hozirai CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikisn chunin bekigariho vuchud dosht: Hisor, Quronteppa, Qabodiyon, Kulob, Balchuvon. Qaroteginu Darvoz. Aknun badi istilo namudani nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tochikison amorati Bukhoro dar chashmi mardumi musulmon Osiyoi Miyona davlati ba obru meshumorid, chunki zaminhoi ziyode az jumla az Hisor-3000 kv.verst, az Kulob-475,0 kv.verst az Qarotegin- 9800 kv.verst az Darvoz16875 kv.verst zamin ba dast ovard.
Dar solhoi bad az istiloh namudani kismati Bukhoroi SHarki aholii Bukhoro ba 2 mln.500 hazor rasida bud. Az in mikdor 250 hazorashro aholii shahr tashkil medod.
Bekigarihoi istiloshuda az chumla Kulob bo 25 hazor. Quronteppa ba 4 hazor, Darvoz bo 3 hazor va Qabodiyonro bo 1 hazor nafar aholiashon ba hayati amorat dokhil shuda budand. YAkchand mahallahoi alohidai aholinishin vuchud doshtand, ki dar hayyoti ikiodii Bukhoroi SHarki nakshi muayyanro bozidand. Ba in mahallaho Dushanbe bo 28 hazor khona va Regar bo 7 hazor khona dokhil meshudand.
SHahrhoi Bukhoroi SHarki na faqat az shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona, balki az shahrhoi qismati garbii Bukhoro farq mekardand. Onho az markazhoi savdoi va rohhoi aloyu savdoi khele dur choy girifta budand. Bo iktisodiyoti kafomondai khud in shahru navohi dar hayoti mardumi in joyho nash na on kadar buzurgro bozidand. SHahrhoi in nokhiyaho az kishloqu dehaho faqat bo on fark mekardand, ki dar shahrho namoyandagoni amir bo sardori bek, namoyandagoni savdo, zamindori kalon, ruhoniho, kosibon va yak kismi dehqonon zindagi mekardand. Dar yak qator sharhho kushunhoi amir joy girifta budand. Namoyandagoni tabaqai boloii tamomi Bukhoroi SHarki az jikhati ijtimoi ba yakdigar monandi doshtand.
Az hama amali baland dar in nohiyaho bek ba shumor meraft. Bek namoyandai tabaqai kaloni feodalon ba hisob shud.
Bek az boloi hukumat bekigari nazorat mebarad va dar zeri itoati u vazifahoi bisyor va amaldoroni ziyode budand. Bek tamomi hokimiyatro dar dasti khud nigoh doshta, shakhsone, ki ba yagon amal sohib meshudand tanho bo rizogii khud bek va az mansab ozod kardani onho niz bo rizoiyoti bek surat megirift. Bad az bek dar joi duyum, yordamchii bek, Esaulboshi yo khud “denanbegi” meistod. Vazifai asosiidevonbegi pesh az hama mardum jam ovardani zakot va andozho bud. u yakchand kotibu arbob va yasaul dar khizmati khud nigoh medosht.
Amali digare, ki dar bekigari vujud dosht “mirzoi munshi” bud. Odatan ba in vazifa odamoni bosavod va husni khati khub doshta davat karda meshudand. Vay dar nazdi bek korhoi rubardorkuni va navishtani hujjathoro ijro mekard.
YAke az vazifahoe, ki dar bekigari baroi nigoh doshtani tartibot vujud dosht, in “Mirshab” bud. “Mirshab” ba zammi in az boloi zindon va mahbusoni dar vay buda nazorat meburd.
“Mirob”- boshad doimo az ob nazorat menamud. Vay dar ikhtiyori khud, yakchand yordamchihoro dosht. Az jumla “amin”, ki khuhaini yak juybor bud, inchunin “arbob”-nazoratchi va “aksaqol”-taksimkunandai ob, “juybonho”-tozakunandagoni juyho va mirzo . ki dar ikhtiyori “mirob” budand.
Mansab “amin” boshad az rui korhoi sokhtmoni nazorat mekard, ki dar ikhtiyori khud yakchand amin dosht.
“Paygirchi”-chamkunandai zakot az savdo va hayvone, ki onhoro baroi furush ba bozor meovardand ba khisob meraft.
Dar idora kardani khukumati mahalli joi zaruriro ruhoniyon megiriftand, va korhoi makhkmro dar ikhtiyor doshtand. CHunin amaldoron dar bekigarihoi nokhiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tikiston ba 3 kism taqsim meshudand:
.Ki-ijroishi konunhoi shariatro nazorat burda, dar ikhtiyori khud yakchand mulozim va mirzo dosht.
.Mufti – donandai konunhoi shariat, ki ba dodani rivoyat mashgul bud.
Baroi dodani rivoyat vay muzd megirift. Dar ikhtiyori mufti yakchand khizmatgor va se muharrir bud.
. Rais-sarukor doshtan bo jinoyatkoron va vayronkunandagoni qonunhoi dini islom,
vayronkunandagoni savdo, nazorat burdan az rui maktabho, tartiboti oilavi va g.r. Rais yakchand khizmatgor doshta, ba vositai onho jinoyatkoronro jazo medod. Mulozimonu durradaston dar ikhtiyori u budand.
Qozi dar bekigariho az tarafi amiri Bukhoro tayin megardid. u doroi malumoti dini buda, dar ayni zamon boyad az avlodi ruhoni boshad.
Az in cho bar meoyad, ki dar Bukhoroi SHarqi yagon amaldor ba tavri intikhobi ozod ba sari mansab nameomad. Hamai maqsadu maromi amaldoronu khudi bek, tanho bo rokhi istismori dekhdononu kambagalon ba dast ovardani foidai ziyod bud.
CHi khele ki dar bolo qayd namudem, bad az shudani amorati Bukhoro az tarafi Rossiya amorati Bukhoroi SHarkiro, ki dar in mintaqa yakchand mulkhoi feodalii nimustakil mavjud bud ba khud hamroh namud. Bad az in mintaqa: khususan nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tikistonro istislo namud, dar mintaqahoi asosii in jo garnizonhoi kharbii khudro joy gironid. Maqsad az joy girondani garnizonhoi harbii dar in nohiyaho, mustakhkam kardani mavqei amorat dar khududi in mintaqa bud. “Soli 1871 dar Regar 400 nafar, dar Hisor-4000 nafar sarboz va 11 tup, dar Kulob 3000 nafar sarbozu 4 tup va dar Kalai-Humb soli 1878 qarib 5000 hazor sarbozi amir choy girifta budand”.
YAke az mulki kalontarini Bukhoroi SHarki in mulki Hisor bud. Badi istilo shudanash Hisor ba 7 bekigari- Boysun, SHerobod, Dekhnav, YUrgi, Hisor, Kabodiyon. Kurgonteppa taqsim karda shud. Dar hamai in bekigariho az chumla dar Hisor niz idorakuni dar asosi idorai umumibukhorogi tashkil yofta bud.
YAkub-bek dar solhoi khukumronii khud dar Hisor ba darachae ba bovarii amir Muzaffar daromada bud, ki Muzaffar baroi khamin ba u imtiyozkhoi beandoza az qabili barorvardani khukmi katlro doda bud.
Ostonakul boshad dar zamoni khukumronii khud dar Hisor niz ba imtiyozhoi nomahdud noil gardida bud. Vay yake az shakhshoi boytarini amorati Bukhoro ba shumor meraft. Doroi mikdori ziyodi tillo, yakchand gallai asp va ramai gusfand bud. Hamai in boigariyu sarvati tabaqai khukumron az khisobi mardumi zakhmatkashi in mintaqa ba dast meomad.
Dar digar bekigarihoi Bukhoroi SHarki az chumla Kulob, Balchuvon, Qabodiyon, Karotegin va Darvoz avhol chunin bud.
Bekigarii Kulob niz yake az on nokhiyahoe meboshad, ki badi istilo shudanash az tarafi amorati Bukhoro ba yakchand amaldoriho taqsim karda shud. Bad az istiloi Kulob, in bekigari ba du kimi bekigarii Kulob chunin ammaldoriho mavchud bud: Muminobod, Kuli, Sari CHashma, Girdi- Kurgani-bolo, Girdi Qurgoni poyon, inchunin shokhigarihoi Davlatobod, Tanov, Kishti darai poyon, va Kishti darai bolo, Sarigar, Rogi, Vari va Duob.
Dar bayni amlakdoronu shokhigariho obrui ziyodero shoh sokhib bud. SHoh metavonist amlakdorhoro az bek kharida girad. YAk qator mulkhoi digarero dar kismati sharki
Kulob kharidoron va puli ziyod doda bad sokhibi okrug meshud. Haridoron baroi on ki kharochoti sarf kardai khudro pushonad, ba gardani in mardum andozahoi ziyodero bor mekardand va yagon shakhs in kori uro man karda
nametavonist.
Gayr az shohon kharidoron boz ichorakoron vud
doshtand, ki yagon okrugro ba mulati muayyan ichora girifta, on mikdor pule ki bek okrugro ba muhlati boyad, ki dar tuli muhlati muayyan bar gardonida ba bek mesuporid. Ichorakor metavonist, ki ruzi avvali ba ichora griftani okrug pulashro suporad. Agar ichorakor in korro sari vakt mekard, khuchain in okrug ba shumor meraft. To ba okhir rasidani vakti muayyanshuda ichorakor tamomi andozhoi choribudaro ba manfiati khud mesitonid. Faqat andozhoro ichorakoron du marotiba ziyod menamudand.
Bekho dar bekigari choi istiqomati makhsus nadoshtand. Onho badi ba in mansab noil gardidan, dar tamomi hududi bekigari gashtu guzor namuda, dar yak mahala muhlati ziyod istiqomat namekard. CHunin korro bek baroi on mekard, ki mabodo bayni beku khalq yagon ziddiyat sar zanad. Be omadani beki nav, amaldoroni mahalli mansabhoi khudro az dast medodand va bo iltimosu tuhfahoi az had ziyod boz ba mansabashon sohib meshudand. Beki nav omada, az amaldoron baroi oro dodani khonai tuhfaho talab mekard. Amlakdoron boshand az hisobi orat namudani aholi ba bek tuhfaho meovardand. Az soli 1877 to soli 1905 dar Kulob 19-to bek ivaz shudand. Az tez-tez ivaz shudani bekho ahvoli khalk beh namegardid.
YAke az markazhoi mamurii digar, bekigarii Qurgonteppa bud. Bad az amorat dokhil kardani Bukhoroi SHarki hokimiyati Kulob mahdudkarda shuda, Kuronteppa viloyati mustakil gardid. Az solkhoi 70-umi asri XIX to sarnagun shudani amorati Bukhoro qalamravi vay betagiyr monda bud. Bekigarii Qurgonteppa az amlakdorii khudi
Kurgonteppa, Saroy va CHilikul iborat bud. Dar sari amlakdoriho amlakdor meistod. Dar nazdi amlakdoriho mirzoho, mirob va digar amlakdoron khizmat mekardand. Asosan amlakdoron bo farmoni bek tayin megardid.
Qabodiyon boshad badi ba amorati Bukhoro hamroh namudani Bukhoro SHarki az Kulob judo karda shud va dar idorai vay digarguniho ba vujud omad. Kabodiyon az qishloq hej farke nadosht. Faqat hamin ki vay nisbatan vase buda, doroi bozor bud. Az jihati hudud aholi nisbati digar bekigarihoi Bukhoroi SHarki khurd bud. Dar in bekigari kozi dar navbati khud rais ham ba shumor meraft. Bekigarii kabodiyon bad amolakdori judo meshud. In amlakdorii Bishkent va Beshcharbon budand.
“Az rui nishondodi ruykhate, ki ba amir peshnihod namuda, budand, dar bekigarii Qabodiyon yak mirokhur, yak qaroulbegi, se mirzoboshi va 15 amaldoroni khurd vujud dosht”.
CHi khele ki dar bobi guzashta zikr shud, tiramohi soli 1877 kushunhoi amir tahti farmondikhii Hudoynazar-dodkhoh ba sarhadi hokimgarii Qarotegin dokhil shud. Ba shikast khurdani hokimiyati merosii Qarotegin dar in jo bekigari tasis yoft. YAkumin beke, ki dar in jo ba kor sar kard, khudi Hudoynazar-dodkhoh bud. Hudoynazar-dodkhoh bo farmoni amir Muzaffar dar Qarotegin bek tain gadida bud.
Bekigarii Qarotegin ba 10 amlakdori taqsim shuda, dar navbati khud in amlakdoriho ba 34 miri hazora taqsim meshudand.
Az soli 1878 Darvoz boshad ba amorat dokhil karda shuda dar in jo bekigari tasis yoft. Az sababi on ki Hudoynazar- dodkhoh beki Qarotegin dar ishol namudani Darvoz rohbari kushunhoi amiri Bukhoro bud, uro amir beki Darvoz elon namud. valeHudoynaza-dodkhoh dar in jo der hukumroni nakard. CHunki tiramohi soli 1878 pisari Hudoynazar baroi jam namudani andozi solona ba nazdi kirgizho sokhilhoi Amudaryo firistodand. Vay andozi ziyode jam namuda, bo in ganimati ziyod ba Afgoniston gurekht. Gurekhtani pisari Hudoynazar-dodkhoh boisi az mansab dur gardidani padarash gardid va ba joi u beki Darvoz Abdurahmon-Hochabek tain gardid. Bekigarii Darvoz ba 4 amlakdori CHildara, Tavildara, Vakhei Bolo va Sagirdasht taqsim meshud. Vale badtar yak qator tadkikotchiyon, az jumla Laptinov N. ki tarikhi pesh az inkilobii Darvozro omukhta bud ba chunin khulosa omad. Dar hayati bekigarii Darvoz amlakdorihoi CHildara, Tavildara, Daljir, Sagirdasht, Vanj, Maydon, Qalai-Humb, SHikay, Kuf, Harangon ba du kismat digar YAzgulom va Tangshiv dokhil meshudand.
Usuli idorai amorat, ki pesh az istiloi hukumati podshohi mavjud bud be hej guna tagyirot davom kardand girift. On idorakunie, ki dar amorat vujud dosht aknun dar Bukhoroi SHarki chori gardida budand. Amorati Bukhoro az 27 bekigari iborat buda, ba har yake az onho bek, kozi rais va muftirohbari mekardand az tarafi amir tayin karda meshud. Bek meboist korhoi davlati, mamuri va ziroatiro idora mekard, rais az tarafi aholi ijro shudani farmoishoti dinu shariatro nazorat menamudva mufti hamchun donandai qonunhoi shariat durusti yo nodurustii in va yo on hodisaro fahmonda medod. Hamai in kason dar navbati avval va asosan manfiati doirahoi hukmron va foidahoi shakhsii khudro tayin mekardand. Bekho, ki ba vositai amlokdorho va digar odamoni khud korhoi zamin va moliya, jam kardidani khiroj, va gayraro idora menamudand, az aholi chi sitonda va ba khazina chi suporidani onhoro kasse taftish namekard.
Mingboshi, amin, oksakol va arbobho. Ki ba sifati namoyandai akholi tain meshudand, odatan ba kirdorihakim va beku amaldoroni amir payravi mekardand. In hol boisi rivochi goratgari va porakhuri gardida, ba iqtisodiyot zarbai sakht vorid meovarad va zindagonii be in ham sakhti ahli mehnatro ba darachai tokatnopaziri merasonid.
Amorati Bukhoro, Bukhoroi SHarqiro chun mustamlikai khud karor doda. Dar in cho nazar ba kismi garbii amorat tartiboti sakhtero chori namud. Tabaqahoi ashrof, sipoh va nukarho, zamindoroni kalonu ruhoniyon va boyho ba takyagohi amorat tabdil yofta budand. Ba in gurruhoi bolonishini istismor kunanda az bahodur to dodkhoh kharguna rutba va mansabho doda meshud. Mansabhoi olitar faqat ba sipohiyoni darbori amir bakhshish megardid. Amir ba ivazi maosh ba in sipohiyon andozi tamomi yak deharo mebakhshid. CHunin sipohiyone, ki doroi chunin mukofot megardidand onhoro “tanho”-dor menomidand. Dehqononi chunin dehaho ba foida tanho kor mekardand. Tanho khur metavonist dukhtaroni in deharo furushad, ba zani girad, havlihoi dehqononro kashida girad va harchi hokhad mekard, kharidu furushi mansabho boz ham ahvoli khalki kambaalro bad megardonid, solhoe, ki dar Qaroten khokimoni amir Almosbek (1886-1892) va Muhammadmurod-parvonachi (18421904) hukumroni mekardand, kharidu furushi mansabu vazifa va unvonu rutba qarib, ki ba rasmiyat daromada bud. Baroi nukari oddi shudan 1200-3000 tanga rishva dodan lozim bud. Agar in guna nukar dar shahr yo kalae ba khizmati harbii tain meshud, az har guna andoz ozod karda shuda, gayr az in baroi tamini maosh ba ikhtiyorash du “bunkhojagii dehqoni doda meshud. Agar nukar khudash zaminu bogu havli doshta boshad, dar in surat ba vay “buna” doda nameshud, vale yagon andoz az u sitoda nameshud”. Mansabi karavulbeki khele kimattar 2=4 khazor tanga meistod. Ba ikhtiyori karavulbeki 4 “buna” doda meshud. Qaraulbeki, ki dar khizmati amir boshadu dar ayni hol molu mulku zamin doshta boshad, uhdador bud, ki ba foida khazinai amir ushr (dahyaki hosil) va “amal”, yane 21 tanga khirochi zaminro dihad”.
Hamin tavr, tamomi mansabho az chumla mansabi mirokhur 3-5 hazor tanga, ba ikhtiyorash 4-10 “buna”, tuksabo 510 hazor tanga, ba ikhtiyorash 100 “buna”, mansabi eshikogoshi 6-15 hazor tanga, ba ikhtiyorash 150-200 “buna” furukhta meshud.
Nihoyat mansabi “biy”, ki onro khudi amir medod (digar mansabhoi az in poinro khudi beki Qarotegin mefurukht va azin kharidu furush hatto amirro khabardor namekard) to 300 “buna” megiriftand, ki onhoro istismor karda, kusuri kharochotashonro mebarovardand.
Mansabu rutbahoi dini niz dar hama nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tikiton, ki ba khayati Bukhoroi SHarqi dokhil meshudand, furukhta meshudand. “Huquqi dodani mansabu unvoni qozikalon, du noibi on va rais ba amir taaluq dosht va dar in bobat faqat amir yorlik doda metavonist. Mansabhoi poyoniro khudi bek taqsim mekard. Har kase, ki beshtar pora medod, sohibi huququ imkoniyati beshtare meshudu taqdiri sadho dehqononu kosibonro hal mekard. Hangomi dodani vazifa sifathoi shakhs, kobiliyati vay mutlako ba nazar girifta nameshud. Dar hamai digar bekigariho vaziyat chunin bud.
Albatta. In guna tartibot ba mamuroni amir maqul va muvofiqi tab bud. Onho dar khurdtarin mansab istoda, dar zarfi 2-3 sol sarvati ziyode cham mekardand.
Hokimoni viloyatho, alalkhusus dar nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikiston dar oratu tahkiri aholi yagon haddu kanor nadoshtand.

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