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TARIHI SIESI, AFKORI JAMIYATI HALSI TOCHIK dar okhiri asri XVI-ibtidoi asri XIX

Dar okhiri asri XVIII ibtidoi asri XIX khamono dar tarikhi khalki tochik parokandagii siyosi davom mekard. Halki tochik dar bayni davlatkhoi feodalii Osiyoi Miyona va Afoniston taqsim shuda, dar kholati chudoi va parokandagii siyosi khayoti dakhshatangez az sar meguzaronad.
Tochikon qismi asosii akholii Afonistonro tashkil doda, dar Kobul, CHalolobod, Kukhiston, Panchsher, Nikru, Kungra, Host va digar shakhru viloyatkho zindagi mekardand.
Dar davlatkhoi feodalii Osiyoi Miyona (khonigarikhoi Bukhoro va Quqand) tochikon akholii asosii shakhrkho va viloyatkhoro tashkil medodand. Dar muzofotkhoi kii khonigarikho niz tankho tochin istiqomat mekardand.
Parokandagii siyosii feodali, ki dar tarikhi khalki tochik az okhiri asri H, az davrai parokanda shudani davlati Somoniyon sar shuda bud dar nimai duyumi asri XVIII boz kham vusat yoft. Mukhammadrakhimbi kushish menamud, ki Hisor, Kubodiyon, Panchakent va Urotepparo ba zeri tasarrufi khud darorad. Dar davrai saltanati amir SHokhmurod (ibtidoi asri XIX) niz chunin kish karda shud. Viloyatkhoi Hisor va Uroteppa muvaqqatan ba kalamravi Bukhoro dokhil shuda, dar davrakhoi minbada maydoni muborizai bayni Bukhoro va Quqand gardidand.
Vakte ki mangitiyon dar taloshi khokimiyat ba muborizakhoi dokhili band budand, shokhi afon Akhmadshokh (1747-1773) dar avvali nimai asri XVIII (1750-1752) Balkh, Adkhoy, Maymana, Akhcha, SHibirgon, Qunduzro, ki aksariyati akholii in viloyatkho tochikon budand, ba tasarrufi khud darovard. Badtar (1873-1895) Badakhshon kham dar takhti nufuzi siyosii Afoniston karor girift.
Dar asri XIX kismi ziyodi zaminkhoi sokhili chapi Amu, ki tochin dar in mintaqa bartariyat doshtand, ba khayati davlati Afoniston dokhil gardid.
Baroi nokhiyakhoi SHimolii Tochikistoni imruza dar okhiri asri XVIII va avvali asri XIX bayni Quqand va Bukhoro changhoi tuloni meraftand. Dar nimai yakumi asri XIX rayonhoi Konibodom, Isfara va Asht zeri tasarrufi Quqand buda, baroi ba dast darovardani Huchand, Uroteppa va Nov khonhoi Bukhoro va Quqand muborizahoi shadid meburdand. Tanho dar muddati 50-60 soli okhir Uroteppa ziyoda az 40 dafa tokhtutozi amironu khonhoro az sar guzaronid, 23 marotiba hokimonash ivaz shudand.
Dar nimai avvali asri XIX nohiyahoi Markazi, CHanubi va SHarkii Tochikistoni hozira mulkhoi mustakil buda, az tarafi hokimoni chudogonai feodali idora karda meshudand. Viloyathoi sargakhi daryoi Amu az khokimiyati Bukhoro ruy gardonida ba hokimgarihoi mustakili Rushon, SHugnon va Vahon taqsim shudand. Badakhshon mustakil buda, mulkhoi feodalii Qaroteginu Darvoz dar ikhtiyori miri Darvoz muttakhid shudand. Hisoru Kulob niz mustakil budand, ammo dar okhiri nimai yakumi asri XIX munosibathoi bayni onho tezu tund gardid.
Az solhoi 60-umi asri XIX parokandagii siyosii khalki tochik dar natichai istiloi Rossiyai podshokhi dar Osiyoi Miyona boz ham purkuvvattar gardid, ki dar borai on dar bobi oyanda malumoti mufassal doda meshavad.
Dar nokhihoi ochiknishin, dar barobari khalki tochik, boz bisyor kavmu qabilahoi turkzabon zindagi mekardand. Az asri XVII sar karda dar nokhiyahoi Markazi va CHanubii Tochikiston qabilahoi kungurot, yuz, marka, barlos, turk, qarlug, laqay, kataani uzbek badi tochikon az chihati shumorai aholi choi duyumro ishol menamudand. Dar Qarotegin, Hisor va Pomiri SHarki baze az kabilahoi kirgiz sukunat doshtand. Dar vodii Vakhsh dar nimai asri XVIII az CHorchuy bodiyanishinoni turkman kuchida omadand. Dar har du khonigari zaboni tochiki zaboni davlati bud. Tamomi korguzori ba zaboni tochiki ichro karda meshud.
Honi okhirini choniyon Abdulfayzkhon, az sababi ayshu tarabi bepoyon mashgul shudanash, az ukhdai idorakunii davlat baromada natavonist. In bud, ki kori davlat ru ba inkiroz nihod, har kas tamai sardori va har fard arazi rohbari dosht. (Gafurov B. Tochikon.- k. II. – S. 86).
Dar chunin vaziyati besaru somoni tokhtutozi achnabiyon ba mulkhoi Movarounnahr sar shud. Masalan: bodiyanishinon dar solhoi 1723-1730 vodii Zarafshonro ba kharobazor tabdil dodand. SHohi Eron Nodirshokhi Afshor dar soli 1740 az rokhi Balkh va CHorchuy ba Movarounnakhr dokhil shud.
Dar chunin vaziyat tabaqai ashrofi kabilai mangit imtiyozi ziyod paydo karda, hokimiyati khoniro toraft beshtar ba etibor namegirift. Nodirshoh az in vaziyat mokhirona istifoda burda, baroi piruzii khud sharoit muhayyo namud. Dar in kor asosguzoroni davlati oyandai mangitiyoni Bukhoro -Mukhammadhakimi atolik va pisarash Mukhammadrakhim ba Nodirshoh kumak merasonidand.
Mukhammadhakim, ki az tarafi khoni choniyon Abdulfayzkhon baroi guftushunid ba nazdi Nodirshoh firistoda shuda bud, pas az bozgasht bo yorii u khukmroni Bukhoro tain gardid.
Pas az vafoti Mukhammadhakimbii atolik pisari u Muhammadrakhim ba kushuni purkuvvat takya karda, isyoni amironi mukholifro bartaraf namud va dar darbor mavqei khudro mustakhkam kard. Bo hamin ba ivaz shudani sulolai hokim sharoiti musoid faroham rasid.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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