Home / Ilm / VOZEH

VOZEH

Kori Rahmatulloi Vozeh soli 1818 dar Bukhoro dar oilai mulloi kambagal tavallud shudaast. Badi malumoti ibtidoi Vozeh chand sol dar maktabi qorigi (az yod kardani Kuron) tahsil karda, dar zarfi chand sol in ilmro ba khubi az khud mekunad.
Laqabi «Qori», ki pesh az nomi vay omadaast, bo hamin sabab ba vay doda shudaast.
Vozeh badi khatmi maktab bo in rutbai «Qori» qanoat nakard. Zero dar marosimu marakaho Quron khondan, ba Vozeh naforid va az in sabab in korro tark namuda, baroi davom dodani tahsil ba madrasa dokhil shud.
Solhoi tahsil dar madarasa padari Vozeh vafot mekunadu ahvoli zindagii u boz ham vaznintar meshavad. Bo vujudi on, shoir az khondan dast namekashad. Vozeh az kudaki khatti zebo dosht. Dar on zamon khushnavison asarhoi shoiru navisandagoni guzashta va muosiri khudro dar jildhoi muhallovu mutalo (zarhalu zardor) menavishtand va dustdoroni sheru adab in kitobhoro bo puli nakd mekharidand. Hushnavison az khisobi in puli nakd zindagi menamudand.
Vozeh dar solhoi tahsili madrasa baroi tamini zindagii khud va oilai beparastor mondaash ba khattoti (yane rubardor namudani kitobu risolaho) mashgul shud va in kasb to okhiri umrash yak manbai daromadi ruzgori vay gardid.
Vozeh dar vakti tahsil faqat bo omukhtani ilmhoi dinii on zamon, qanoat nakarda, ba khudomuzii ilmhoi tabii, tarikh va adabiyot mashgul meshavad.
Takhminan dar solhoi 1845-46 Vozeh madrasaro khatm mekunad. Ammo on ilmu donishe, ki qarib dar zarfi bist sol hosil karda bud, ba vay hej manfiate nabakhshid. Vay darajai mudarrisi (yane dar madrasaho dars dodan) dosht, ammo uro dar yagon madrasa va idorai davlati ba kor qabul nakardand.
Ba hamin tariqa, Vozeh dar yak vaziyati sakhti zindagi mond. Dar in vaziyati tang boz hamon hunari khushnavisi ba kor omad: vay kitobu risolahoro baroi odamoni puldor kitobat mekardu ba hamin daromad umr ba sar meburd.
Dar avvalhoi solhoi panjohum Vozeh ba vositai shakhse, ba Karmina omada, ba khidmati Muzaffar, pisari amiri on vakta Nasrullo dokhil meshavad. Vazifai Vozeh hamesha dar suhbati amirzoda hozir budan va baroi u sher navishtan bud. In khidmat baroi Vozeh mushkil boshad ham, az tarsi khashmu gazabi amirzoda vay chand muddat onro ba zima girift. Ammo dar suhbati yak amirzodai besavodu johil nishastan va uro madhu sitoish kardan baroi Vozeh khele garon va azobi ruhie bud. Vay dar in zindoni manavi bisyor toqat karda natavonista, soli 1858 ba yak bahonae khizmati amirzodaro tark karda, ba Bukhoro bargasht.
In gustokhii Vozeh amirzoda Muzafarro khele khashmgin kard. Muzaffar badi vafoti padarash Nasrullo soli 1860 ba takht nishast, az rui kinavu adovati peshtara az Vozeh intiqom giriftanro sar kard. Avval raftani Vozehro ba madrasa, mirzokhonahoi qoziyonu muftiyon man kard. In munosibati amir Muzaffarro dida bisyor shakhson bo Vozeh raftu omad namekardand. Hudi Vozeh ba peshi dustonash, (az tarsi on ki ba onho yagon gape narasad), pinhoni meraft. In taqiboti amir ba Vozeh to andozae khatari chon dosht. Binobar in Vozeh ba mashvarati dustonash baroi az azabi ablahonai amir khalos shudan az rui zarurat shere navishta dar on, az «gunohu khatohoi» khud tavba mekunad:
Ba haqi tavbai Odam, ba khaqi tavbai Nuh, Ki kardam zi khatohoi khud hamon tavba, Hamesha rohi rizoyat nadida nameravam, V-az on ki nest qabulat, kunam az on tavba.
Gayr az in, Vozeh, ba amir Muzaffar baze qasidavu gazalho niz mefiristod. In iqdomi shoir harchand uro ba marhamatiyu iltifoti amir nazdik nakarda boshad ham, ammo az taqibot khalos kard. SHoir imkoniyat paydo kard, ki dar zarfi chandin sol dar borai shoironu navisandagoni muosir malumot cham namuda, kitobe talif kunad.
Vay dar okhiri solhoi shastum in asarro ba okhir rasonda, onro «Tuhfat-ul-ahbob fi tazkirat – ul – ashob» (Tuhfai duston az zikri yoron) nomid. Dar in asar tarchumai hol va namunai ashori beshtar az 145 shoiru navisandagone, ki dar Bukhoroyu Samarqand, Huchand va digar markazhoi adabii Osiyoi Miyona zindagi mekardaast. CHande az shoironi Eronu Afgoniston niz ba in tazkira dokhil gardidaast. Pas az tazkirai Maleho, ki az talifi on ziyoda az dusad sol guzashta bud, Vozeh tarikhi adabiyoti tochikro az nav zinda kard.
Vozeh ayr az talifi tazkira va chand risolai ilmi, ba surudani azalu kasida niz mashgul bud.
Mazmuni bisyor azalhoi Vozeh az yasu navmedi va shikoyat az bevafoii davru «abnoi» ruzgor iborat ast. Az in ru khulosa menamoem, ki ruzgori shoir khele sangin budaast.
Soli 1885 amir Abdulahad ba takht menishinad. Az in voqea sole naguzashta, (bahoroni soli 1886) Vozeh ba ziyorati shakhrhoi mukaddasi Arabiston- Makkavu Madina mebaroyad. SHoir dar asnoi safar bo hayot va sharoiti zindagonii mamlakathoi gunogun shinos megardad. In safari Vozeh karib yak sol tul kashid. Vozeh dar tuli safar bisyor shahrhoi sanoativu madanii chahonro mebinad va bo korkhonahoi sanoati, osori ilmiyu madanii khalkdoi gunogun shinos meshavad.
Vozeh pas az bozgasht ba Bukhoro mekhost, ki hamdiyoronashro az voqeahoi ibratangezi safari khesh vokif namoyad. Vay bovari dosht, ki safarnomaash misli hikhoi Akhmadi Donish mardumi aflatzadai Bukhororo ba sui ilmu marifat mekashad. SHoir dar yak muddati kutoh, in asarashro navishta, soli 1887 onro ba okhir merasonad. Vozeh az rui mazmunu mundaricha ba in asar du nom guzoshta bud. YAke «Sanovekh-masolik va farosikh – ul – mamolik», yane «Voqeahoi roh va masofahoi bayni mamlakatho», digare «Garoib-ul-khabar fi achib –s – safar», yane «Hikoyathoi arib az achoiboti safar». CHunon ki mebinem, maqsadi Vozeh az in kitob na tavsifi ziyorati Makkavu Madina, balki shinos namudani mardumi Bukhoro bo hayotu zindagii kishvarhoi taravdikardai dunyo meboshad.
Vozeh baroi on ki asarash az tarafi havodoroni khushomadgui amir ba takib duchor nashavad, dar muqqadimai on amir Abdulahadro tarif karda, asarashro ba vay bakhshid. Ammo amir va darboriyon didand, ki maqsadi shoir az talifi in asr ba amir khushomad guftan nest, balki dar bayni khalq pasmondagoniyu chaholati khukumatro fosh kardan ast. Asari Vozeh dar bayni ahli peshqadami ilmu adab zud shukhrat paydo kard va shakhsoni zakivu farosatmand maqsadi muallif pay burdand.
In holat nafrat va adovati amir va atrofiyoni uro nisbat ba Vozeh az nav barangezonid. Vozekhro ba «noshukri» nisbat ba amir «kufru kofiri» va aybhoi digar mutakhkham mekardand. Vazi zindagii navisanda boz ham badtar gardid. Az ekhtimol dur nest, ki bisyor sherhoi shikoyatomezi shoir dar hamin solho navishta shuda boshand. CHunonchi, u dar yake az sherhoyash menavisad:
Man ki az tashvishi davron khotiram zeri gam ast, Ruzi idam dar nazar monandi shomi motam ast.
Karda gamhoi chahon cho dar dili noshodi man,
Locharam chuz man ba olam har ki bini, khurram ast,
Az kambagaliyu muflisi va dushvorihoi zindagi Vozeh to pironsoli khonador shuda natavonist. Va dar ayomi piri khonador shuda, sokhibi chand farzand gardid. Vozeh dar muflisi soli 1893 dar Bukhoro vafot kard.
Vozeh navisanda va shoiri purmahsuli zamoni khud bud. Vay ba zabonhoi tochiki, arabi va uzbeki sher guftaast. CHunonki muosironash menavisand, u bo se zabon devoni ashorash ham tartib doda budaast. Ammo holo hech yake in devonho ba mo dastras nagardidand. SHerhoi tochikii u dar bisyor bayozhovu tazkiraho va majmuahoi digar sabt gardidaand, ki shumorai umumii onho takriban 2000 baytro tashkil medihand. Mavzui asosii azaliyot va sherhoi liriki shoir, az ohanghoi etirozi nisbat ba beadolatihoi sokhti chamiyatii on davr, tarannumi ishq va zindagii toqatfarsoi khesh iborat ast. Merosi lirikii Vozeh dar nazmi on davra az jihati oyahoi peshqadam va sodagii zabonu uslub maqomi shoistae dorad.
Ammo oyahoi peshqadami ichtimoi va afkori
maorifparvarii Vozeh dar «Sanoveh – ul – masolik» tachassuum yoftaand. In asar kimmati makhsusi tarikhi doshta, yake az bekhtarin durdonahoi ilmiyu adabii on davra bashumor meravad.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

jubron-xalil

Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

222222222222222