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Siyosati davlatii ilmi – tekhniki va tekhnologiyahoi peshqadam

Dar zamoni hozira masalai muayyan namudani afzaliyathoi ilmi- tekhniki va siyosati innovatsioni na tanho mamoliki buzurgtarini az jihati sanoati taraqqikardai jahon (ba monandi Russiya, Britaniyai Kabir, IMA, Olmon, YAponiya, Hitoy), inchunin onhoero niz ba hayajon meovarad, ki bo sababi mahdudiyati imkoniyathoi zakhiravi tanho dar samthoi alohidai peshrafti tekhnologi mavqei peshsafro ishgol menamoyand (inho, az jumla, Isroil, Finlyandiya, Tayvan, Gonkong). Afzoishi balandi maroq ba masalai afzaliyatho dar solhoi okhir inchunin bo qadam nihodani insoniyat ba hazorsolai nav aloqamand ast. In kushishi davlat va bakhshi khususiro oid ba khulosabandi namudani rohi taykarda va justujui strategiyai rushd dar oyanda havasmand menamoyad.

Munosibathoi asosi ba korkardi afzaliyathoi siyosati ilmi dar mamlakathoi muttaraqqii sanoati dar asarhoi iqtisoddoni Federatsiyai Rossiya botafsir bayon karda shudaand.

Muayyan kardani afzaliyathoi millii rushdi ilmi-tekhniki dar yak sath masalai ham siyosi, ham iqtisodi va ham ilmi hisob meyobad. Binobar in hayratovar nest, ki dar hallu fasli on aksar vaqt doirahoi vasei jamiyatchigi, ki manfiathoi gunoguntarin guruhhoi ijtimoi, biznesi kalon, sohibkoroni khurd, olimon, harbiyon, khizmatchiyoni davlati va gayraro bayon megirand, naqshi faol mebozand.

Dar jambast, afzaliyathoi muqarrar kardashavanda aksar vaqt murosoe meboshand, ki dar in va yo on daraja orzui bisyor tarafhoi ba taqsimoti zakhirahoi mahdudi bujavi havasmandro ba moddi nazar megirand.

Az nuqtai nazari siyosatmadoron taqsimoti mablaghoi bujavi in, beshubha, masalai siyosi, samthoi afzaliyatnoki korhoi ilmi- tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori-in samthoi ba maqsadhoi muqarrarkardashudai millii rushdi darajai balandtarin javobguyanda meboshad. Ba in qobil maqsadro dar dilkhoh mamlakat, beshubha, mustahkam kardani qobiliyati mudofiavi, tamini faoliyati samaranoki iqtisodiyot, dar bozori jahoni va dokhili nigoh doshtani raqobatpazirii istehsolkunandagoni vatani, taminoti zakhiravi va zakhirasarfanamoi, tandurusti, hifzi muhiti atrof va gayra mansub donista meshavand.

Agar kushishi judo kardani samthoi tadqiqoti va korkardhoi ilmii ba maqsadhoi mazkur mutobiq ba jo ovarda shavad, on goh ba in majmui vasei korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori bunyodi, justujui va amali vorid megardad. Baroi dar hajmi purra tashkil kardani onho voqean iqtisodi purquvvatro doshtan zarur ast. Ammo, malum ast, ki masalahoi judo kardani afzaliyat mahz bo nabudani zakhirahoi zaruri va mahdud budani hajmi mablaghoi bujavi ham aloqamandand.

Doirai sarbastae paydo megardad, ki raho shudan az on tanho dar natijai muqarrar gardidani afzaliyatho dar bayni maqsadhoi millii az hama afzaliyatnoktarin imkonpazir megardad (agar in umuman imkonpazir boshad). Dar har holat, in intikhobi siyosi bo hamai norasogi mahdudiyathoi ba on khos khohad bud.

Intikhobi samthoi afzaliyatnoki korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori inchunin tibqi maqsadnokii iqtisodii onho imkonpazir ast.

Agar mahaki afzoishi istemolot ba har yak nafar aholi bar asos girifta shavad on goh mo pesh az hama bo masalai intikhobi fosilai vaqtii mutobiq duchor megardem.

Dar tuli bisyor kutohi vaqt az kharojoti guzaronidani tadqiqot va korkardhoi ilmi mumkin bud, ki tamoman dast kashida shavad va mablaghoi sarfashuda az jumla ba niyozhoi ijtimoi yo sohai istehsoli yagon namudi moli kamyoft ravona karda shavad. Ammo dar oyandai baso dur chunin munosibat metavonad ba kuchai sarbasta bubarad-istehsolot ba dast ovardan va azkhudkardani dastovardi ilmi va tekhnologiyai navro bas mekunad, afzoishi hosilnokii mehnat bozdoshta meshavad, sifati mahsuloti korkhonahoi vatani nisbat ba darajai jahoni ba oqibmoni ogoz mekunad va dar sharoiti jahonishavii iqtisodiyot, korkhonahoi vatani az tarafi raqiboni khoriji muntazam az bozor tang karda barovarda meshavand.

Ravandhoi innovatsioni dar rushdi iqtisodi besh az pesh mavqei nazarrasero sohib megardand va onho ba baland bardoshtani sifati ruzgori shahrvandon, kutoh namudani qafomoni az mamlakathoi muttaraqqii jahon ravona karda shudaand. Zimnan vazifai muhimi rushdi innovatsioni afzun namudani istehsol va dar bozori jahoni furukhtani mahsuloti balandtekhnologii raqobatpazir, ki az hisobi tarkiboti aqloni hissai kaloni arzishi ilovashudaro dorost ba hisob meravad.

Dar davlathoi muttaraqi taqriban 80-95 foizi majmui mahsuloti dokhili ba hissai donishhoi navi bar tekhnika va tekhnologiyaho tajassumyofta, usulhoi tashkili mehnat, istehsolot va idorakuni, inchunin dar baland bardoshtani sathi malumotnokii aholi rost meoyad.

Rushdi innovatsioni ba jori namudani maqsadnoki omilhoi taraqqiyot dar hamai sohahoi iqtisodiyot ovarda merasonad va korkardi strategiyai faolnamoii faoliyati innovatsionii

subekthoi iqtisodiro dar asosi sohibkori talab mekunad. Sohibkorii innovatsioni in faoliyati subekthoi mustaqili khojagidorest, ki tavakkali innovatsioniro oid ba korkard (tahiya) azkhudkuni, guzaronidan va istifodai navovariho ba khud megirad va az furushi onho payvasta foida ba dast meorad. Mohiyati tarifi mazkur ba inobat kheli navi munosibathoi iqtisodi, tashakkuli navi tafakkuri innovatsioni, muntazam boloravii ikhtisosmandi, rushdu kamoli shakhsiyati inson meboshand.

Bahoguzorihoi Tashkilothoi Sozmoni Millali Muttahid nishon medihand, ki dar sokhtori boigarii millii aksar mamoliki jahon nazdik 2 yo 3 hissaash ba sarmoyai insoni rost meoyad. Dar zamoni hozira dar sokhtori ijtimoi joi asosiro mutakhassison – molikoni ba korkard, azkhudkuni, pahnkuni va istifodai navovarihoi ba nizomhoi murakkabi ilmi-tekhniki va ittilooti-tekhnologi khizmat rasonida ishgol menamoyand.

Sohibkoron namoyandagoni asosii iqtisodi bozargoni hisob meyoband va onho bo navi innovatsionii fikrroni, ki ba mushovaraiilmi-tashkilii omilhoi istehsoli bo maqsadi istifodai samaranoki zakhiraho va badastovarii daromadi beshtari sohibkori ravona karda shudaast, farq mekunand.

Bavujudoii sohibkorii innovatsioni hamzamon bo digargunsozihoi inqilobii tamomi omilhoi istehsolot, shaklhoi tashkili mehnat, istehsolot va idorakuni jarayon megirad, az tarafi digar, donishhoi ilmi, ittiloot ba zakhirai mustaqili istifodai qulayi innovatsioni tabdil meyoband. Binobar in rushdi sohibkorii innovatsioni ba khudi obekti faoliyat bo nazardoshti on, ki korkhonaho nizomi alhol mavjudai ittilooti az miqyosi istehsoli molu khizmati ilmtalab beshtar vobastagiro tabdil medihand, munosibati muvofiqro talab menamoyad. Hamin tavr boshad, pas dar rushdi sohibkorii innovatsioni, dastgirii maqsadnoki davlatii ishtirokkunandagoni loihahoi innovatsioni dar zaminai bunyodi fondhoi makhsusgardonidashudai innovatsioni, taraqqiyoti bakhshi khususii khizmatrasoni oid ba  sugurtakunoni, barnomahoi bayniidorii faoliyati innovatsioni ahamiyati makhsus dorad.

SHarthoi asosii bavujudoi va rushdi sohibkorii innovatsioni ba namudhoi zerin ba nazar merasand:

  1. tahiyai meyorhoi navi tanzim dar sohahoi ilm, tekhnika, tekhnologiya va faoliyati innovatsioni mutobiqkunanda;
  2. digargunsozihoi institutsionalii faoliyati innovatsioni, ki ba bunyodi sokhtorhoi innovatsioni, amali kardani loihahoi innovatsionii afzaliyatnok va barpo namudani «birjai innovatsiyaho» ravona kardashuda;
  3. ba ruykhatgiriyu aniqkunii bakhshho, korkhonaho va sohahoi ilmi va ilmi-tekhniki bo maqsadi rushdi iqtidori ilmi. Zimnan ba raqobatpazirii sohahoi mukhtalifi iqtisodiyot, sathi tekhnologiya va namudhoi asosii tekhnika baho dodan sudbakhsh ast;
  4. mavjudiyati nizomi millii innovatsionii samaranok korkunandai muassisahoi khususi va davlati va korkhonahoi bakhshi ilmi-tekhnikii iqtisodiyotro havasmandgardonanda. Nizomi milii innovatsioni, hamchun asosi taraqqiyoti sohibkorii innovatsioni, ba taraqqi va pahnshavii tekhnologiyahoi nav dar mamlakat sharoit faroham meorad;
  5. muayyan va tasdiq namudani samthoi afzaliyatnoki sohibkorii innovatsioni va tekhnologiyahoi muhim baroi korkhonahoi mamlakat;
  6. ba tafakkuri umum va sanadhoi qonunguzori jorinamudani mazmuni navi sarmoya;
  7. tagyirothoi jiddii siyosati innovatsioni sokhtori sarmoyaguzoriro bo nazardoshti mansubiyoti onho ba ravandhoi innovatsioni az nav didan, sarmoyaguzorii venchuriro taraqqi dodan, tabdil dodani korkhonaho, shirkatho, pajuhishgohhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti, shubahoi konstruktoriro ba molikoni samarabakhshi havasmand va qobili navovarihoro tatbiqkunanda;
  8. baland bardoshtani samaranokii amali namudani siyosati innovatsioni dar asosi farohamorii sharoiti musoidi taraqqiyoti moliyaviyu qarzii faoliyati innovatsioni;
  9. tabdil dodani investitsiya ba sarmoyai insoni, ba sohahoi asosii mablagguzorihoi darozmuhlat, inchunin usulhoi navi bahodihi be tavakkalhoi sugurtavi va masuliyat, istifodai mekhanizmhoi jalbi mablaghoi shakhsi, qarzdihi ba donishjuyon va gayraho talab mekunad;
  10. hamgiroii barobarhuquq va aksulmanofei ilmi-tekhniki bo harifon oid ba hamkorii ilmi-tekhniki va iqtisodi.

 

Dar mavridi jomea ba marhilai donish, poydorshavii rohi innovatsionii taraqqiyot vorid gardid, ba zamone, ki zehn ittiloot, donishho, malakaho, «nou-khau» hamchun omilhoi muhimtarini rushdi baho doda meshavand.

Az nav sokhtorsozii innovatsioni sifatnokii bozsozii sokhtorii sanoat va islohoti kompleksii sohai ilmi-tekhnikiro talab mekunad.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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