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Strategiyai korkhona (innovatsioni)

Strategiyai innovatsioni dar korkhona: Tashkili idorai faoliyati innovatsioni bahodihii majmui va omuzishi innovatsioniro peshbini va muayyan mekunad. Pesh az hama, farq karda tavonistani innovatsiya az tagyirothoi nochiz dar mahsulot va ravandhoi tekhnologi (masalan tagyirothoi estetiki – rang, shakl va gayra), meboshad. Tagyirothoi nochizi zohiri yo tekhniki dar mahsulot, ki istifodai sokhtorii onro betagyir guzoshta, bo alomathoyu khususiyathoyash arzishi mahsulot, mavodhoi tarkibii ba on dokhilshavanda, bo vusat dodani namudhoi mahsulot az hisobi azkhudkunii istehsoloti peshtar dar korkhonai mazkur tavlidnashavanda, vale allakay dar bozori mahsulot mashhur gardida, ki bo maqsadi qonesozii talaboti jori va afzun namudani korkhona surat megirad, zarur meboshad.

Dar adabiyoti ilmi vobasta ba alomathoi tekhnologi innovatsiya ba chunin guruhho judo meshavand:

  • innovatsiyahoi mahsuloti, onho istifodai nav, masnuoti nimtayyori nav va qismhoi mukammalkunandai onho, daryofti mahsuloti usulan navro dar bar megirand;
  • innovatsiyahoi ravandi, ki usulhoi navi tashkili istehsolot (tekhnologiyai nav)-ro ifoda mesozand. Innovatsionihoi ravandi metavonand bo barposozii sokhtorhoi navi tashkili dar hayati korkhona, shirkat aloqamand boshand.

Az rui namudhoi peshnihod baroi bozor peshbinishavanda innovatsiyahoroba khelhoi zerin taqsim menamoyand:

  1. baroi sohahoi jahoni nav;
  2. baroi sohahoi kishvari nav;
  3. baroi korkhonai mazkur (guruhi korkhonaho).

Az ruyi mavqe dar nizom (dar korkhona, dar shirkat) metavon innovatsiyahoro az hamdigar ba tavri zerin judo namud:

  • innovatsiyaho dar rohi voridshavi ba korkhona (tagyirot dar intikhob va istifoda nakardani ashyo, moshinho va tajhizot, ittiloot va gayra);
  • innovatsiyaho dar rohi khorijshavi az korkhona (masnuot, khizmatrasoniho, tekhnologiyaho, ittiloot va gayra);
  • innovatsiyahoi sokhtori bohamdigar aloqamandi sohahoi gunoguni korkhona (idoravi, istehsoli, tekhnologi).

Vobasta ba mohiyati tagyirothoi voridshavanda innovatsiyaro bazaminavi, kulli, behbudsozanda, digargunsozanda judo mekunand.

Guruhbandii innovatsiya bo nazardoshti sohai faoliyati korkhona khususiyati purrai samti istifodai onro sharh medihad.

Az rui in nishonaho innovatsiyahoi zerinro az ham judo mesozand:

  1. tekhnologi,
  2. istehsoli,
  3. tijorati,
  4. ijtimoi,
  5. sohai idorakuni.

Az rui tarzi bavujudoii innovatsiya onro metavon ba reaktivi va strategi judo namud. Ba reaktivi innovatsiyahoe taalluq dorand, ki mavjudiyati korkhonaro dar muboriza bo raqibon dar bozor tamin menamoyad. Innovatsiyahoi strategi – in on navovarihoest, ki maqsadi dar oyanda sohib shudan ba bartari dar raqobatro dorad.

Ba hamin tariq, guruhbandii innovatsiya az ruyi nishonahoi dar bolo ovardashuda, tasisi nizomi tatbiqi menejmenti innovatsioniro faroham meovarad.

Dar menejmenti innovatsioni mavqei markazi, asosi ba korkardi strategiyai innovatsioni va tadbirhoe doda meshavad, ki baroi amali namudani on ravona karda shudaand. Tahiya va istehsoli namudhoi navi mahsulot samti afzaliyatnoki strategiyai korkhona megardad, zero hamai samthoi boqimondai onro muayyan menamoyad.

Ravandi tatbiqi menejmenti innovatsioni ba tavri umumi masalahoi zerinro peshbini menamoyad,

  • tartib dodani naqsha va barnomahoi faoliyati innovatsioni;
  • nazorat va jarayoni tahiyai mahsuloti nav va dar amal jorisozii on;
  • barrasii loihahoi bavujudovardai mahsuloti nav;
  • peshburdi siyosati yagonai innovatsioni, hamohangsozii faoliyat dar vohidhoi istehsoli;
  • tamini barnomahoi faoliyati innovatsioni bo zakhirahoi moliyavi va moddi;
  • tamini faoliyati innovatsioni bo hayati shakhsii kormandoni sohibikhtisos;
  • tashkili guruhhoi maqsadnoki muvaqqati baroi halli majmui mushkilihoi innovatsioni az andesha to istehsoli guruhii mahsulot;
  • tashkili monitoringi tatbiqi naqshaho va barnomahoi faoliyati innovatsioni.

Intikhobi strategiya kafili muvaffaqiyatnoki faoliyati iqtisodist. Korkhona, agar samti tagyirothoi vaziyatro peshbini ikarda natavonad va ba onho mutobiq nagardad, metavonad duchori buhron gardad. Intikhobi strategiya – qismi muhimi tarkibii davri menejmenti innovatsioni ba shumor meravad. Dar sharoiti iqtisodi bozargoni baroi rohbariyati korkhona doshtani mahsuloti khub kofi nest. Vay boyad bodiqqat paydoishi tekhnologiyai navro nazorat kunad va jori namudani onhoro dar faoliyati iqtisodii khud ba naqsha girad, to in ki az raqibonash aqib namonad.

Banaqshagirii strategi du hadafi asosiro taqib mekunad. Avval – taqsim va istifodai samaranoki zakhiraho. In ba nom «strategiyai dokhili» ba shumor meravad. Istifodai zakhirahoi mahdud, ba misli sarmoya, tekhnologiya, kormandon ba naqsha girifta meshavad. Ba gayr az in, sohahoi navro intikhob namudani korkhona, baromadan az sohahoi gayridilkhoh, intikhobi «portfeli» samaranok az tarafi korkhona surat megirad. Duyum – mutobiqshavi ba muhiti beruna. Dar in mavrid, baroi tamini mutobiqshavii samaranoki ba tagyiroti omilhoi beruna (tagyirothoi iqtisodi, omilhoi siyosi, holati demokrati, vaziyati ekologi va gayra) vobastabuda vazifa guzoshta meshavad.

Banaqshagirii strategi bo barguzorii tadqiqothoi sershumor, jamovari va tahlili malumotho asos meyobad. In ba bahodihii muntazzami bozor imkon medihad. Dar ayni zamon, boyad dar nazar dosht, ki dar sharoiti guzarish ba bozor, aksaran qismi tarkibii strategiya tagyir meyobad. Binobar in, strategiya boyad ba tarze tahiya gardad, ki dar surati zarurat on bo digarash ivaz gardad, yo in ki ba holathoi tagyiryobanda mutobiq karda shavad.

Tartibu tahiyai strategiya az ifodai maqsadi umumii korkhona, tashkilot ogoz megardad, va on boyad ba har yak menejer, sohibkor fahmo boshad. Maqsadguzori dar aloqai korkhona bo muhiti beruni, bozor, istemolkunanda va sathi talaboti innovatsionii on naqshi muhimero mebozad.

Pas az intikhobi hadaf boyad du jambaro ba nazar girift, mushtarii korkhona kist va kadom talabothoro on metavonad qone 80

sozad. Pas az muayyan namudani hadafi umumii davrai duyumi banaqshagirii iqtisodi surat megirad. Hamin tavr, pas az muayyan namudani hadafi umumi davrai duyumi banaqshagirii iqtisodi, yane mushakhkhas sokhtani hadaf surat megirad. Dar ayni zamon, farzan metavonand hadafu maqsadhoi zerin muayyan shavand,

  1. Foidanoki -masalan dar soli jori ba on boyad noil shud, ki 8 mln. somoni foida ba dast oyad;
  2. Bozorho (hajmi furush, sahmi bozor, jori kardan dar holathoi nav), masalan sahmi bozorro to 20%, va yo hajmi furushro ba 40 hazor dona rasonidan;
  3. Mahsulnoki, masalan ba hisobi miyona korkardi yak soati yak korgar 8 vohidi mahsulot;
  4. Mahsulot (hajmi umumii istehsol, istehsoli moli nav va yo az istehsolot barovardani baze namudho va gayra);
  5. Zakhirahoi moliyavi (hajm va sokhtori sarmoya, tanosubi sarmoyai khudi va zamini, hajmi sarmoyai dar gardishbuda va gayra);
  6. Iqtidorhoi istehsoli, bino va inshoot;
  7. Korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu naqshakashi va jori namudani tekhnologiyai nav (nishondihandahoi asosi, khususiyathoi tekhnologi, arzish va muhlati jorisozi);
  8. Tashkilot – tagyirot dar sokhtori tashkili va faoliyat, masalan, kushodani namoyandagii korkhona dar mintaqai muayyan;
  9. Zakhirahoi insoni (istifodai onho, omuzish va gayra);
  10. Masuliyati ijtimoi.

Banaqshagirii strategi ba hisobu kitob, bahodihi va tahlili muhiti beruni va dokhilii korkhona takya mekunad. Ravandho va tagyirot dar muhiti beruni ba miqyos va samaranokii faoliyati innovatsionii korkhona tasiri hayotan muhim merasonand. Omilhoi asosii bo muhiti beruni vobastabuda – iqtisodiyot, siyosat, bozor, tekhnologiya, raqobat meboshand. Hususan, raqobat omili muhim ba hisob meravad. Binobar in, boyad raqiboni asosiro oshkor namuda, mavqei onho dar bozor (sahmi bozor, hajmi furush, maqsadho va gayra)-ro muayyan namud. Omuzishi daqiqi tarafhoi qavi va zaifi raqibon va muqoisai natijahoi onho bo nishondihandahoi khud, dar khubtar andeshidani strategiyai muboriza dar raqobat imkoniyat medihand.

Ba omilhoi sarosarii muhiti beruna samthoi ijtimoiyu mamuri va ekologi dokhil meshavand. Korkhona inchunin boyad tagyirotro dar holathoi demografi, sathi tahsilot va gayra ba inobat girad. Tahlili muhiti dokhili bo maqsadi muayyan namudani tarafhoi qaviyu zaif dar faoliyati korkhona, muayyan sokhtani vusati minbadai miqyosi istehsolot va mushakhkhas sokhtani bozori raqobat guzaronida meshavad.

Strategiya nuqtai harakati tadqiqothoi nazariyavi va tajribavii korkhonaho ba hisob meravad. Korkhonaho metavonand bo on farq kunand, ki to kadom andoza rohbaroni onho qarorhoi halkunanda qabul mekunand va onho bo strategiyai istifodai navovari aloqa dorand. Agar menejerho kushishhoi tatbiqi navovarihoro dastgiri namoyand, ehtimoliyati on, ki dar korkhona navigariho jori khohand shud, meafzoyad. Dar tashkili menejmenti innovatsioni va to chi andoza ba jarayon dokhil namudani qarori rohbariyati boloi ahamiyati maqsadhoi strategi va moliyavi bolo meravad.

Dar sharoiti jahonshavi rushdi menejmenti innovatsioni baroi rushdi nishondihandahoi sifatii korkhona va afzoishi istehsol va furushi mahsuloti ba raqobat tobovar dar bozor, ki az hisobi imkoniyathoi zehni purra   megardand, nigaronida shudaast.

Hususiyathoi khosi davrai kununii rushdi faoliyati innovatsioni, dar bakhshhoi buzurgi bozor tashkili majmui yagonai ilmi-tekhniki ba hisob meravad, ki dar ravandi vohidi tadqiqot va istehsolot muttahid sokhta meshavad. In aloqai nazdiki hamai marhilahoi davri «ilm – istehsolot»-ro peshbini menamoyad. Tashkili nizomi yaklukhti ilmu istehsolotu furush ba tavri obektivi dar tamini rushdi innovatsioni va talaboti samti bozorii korkhona ifoda meyobad. Tamini rushdi innovatsioni dar solhoi 80-umi asri HH ba on ovarda rasonid, ki dar siyosati innovatsionii korkhonahoi azim tamoyuli tagyiri samti faoliyati ilmi-tekhniki va istehsoliyu furush ba vujud omadand. On, pesh az hama, bar kushishi afzoishi vazni qiyosii masnuoti navi bo ilm vobastabudai namudhoi mahsulot ifoda megasht, ki furushashon ba vusati khizmatrasonihoi dakhldori muhandisi, mashvarati va gayra musoidat mekard. Az tarafi digar kushishi kam kardani kharojoti istehsoli mahsuloti ananavi mushohida meshavad.

Tajribai rushdi iqtisodi nishon medihad, ki in tamoyulot makhsusan dar menejmenti innovatsioii sohai moshinsozii davlathoi peshqadami jahon ba khubi zohir megardad, onho kushishhoi khudro baroi korkard va istehsoli mahsuloti murakkabi tekhnologi (tekhnikai radioelektroni, makhsusan mikroprotsessorho, tekhnikai aviatsioniyu kayhoni, tajhizoti energetiki, vositahoi avtomatiki va gayra) ravona namudaand. Onho kushish menamoyand, ki az hisobi monopolizatsiyai chunin masnuot bozdehii favrii sarmoyaro tamin namuda, peshdastiro dar bakhshhoi muayyani bozori moshin va tajhizot nigoh dorand. Dar yak vaqt onho mekushand kharojoti istehsolot dar sohahoi ananavii moshinsozi bo maqsadi baland gardidani raqobatnokii onho, harchi beshtar kamtar gardad.

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