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ZINDAGINOMAI MUHAMMAD (s) – Payombari Islom

Sarchashmahoe, ki az hayotu zindagi va kornomahoi Muhammad (s) khabar medihand, pesh az hama, Quron (bo tafsiru tavilhoi on) va sunna-hadisho meboshand. Bad az inho dar maqomi duyum kitobhoe, ki bo nomhoi «Sirat-un-nabi» va «Kitob -ul-magozi» maruf shudaand, joy dorand. Az jumla, «Sirat»-i Ibni Hishom va Ibni Ishoq, «Kitob-ul-magozi»-i Vaqidi, «Tabaqoti»-i Ibni Sad va «Kitob al-maorif»-i Ibn Qutayba, «Kitob al-akhbor at-tavil»-i Dinovari, «Tarikh»-i YAqubi, «Tarikh ar – rasul val- muluk»-i Tabari, «Futuhot-ul-buldon»-i Balozuriro metavon nom burd.

Dar mavridi shakhsi tarikhi, asosguzor va paygambari islom budani Muhammad (s) shubha nest. Harchand, dar atrofi shakhsiyati u badho az tarafi musalmonon naqlu rivoyathoi ziyodi khususiyati asotirivu afsonavi doshta niz dar qissaho roh yoftaand.

Muhammad(s) az qabilai quraysh, avlodi Bani Hoshim meboshad, ki az ashrofoni shahri Makka budand. Vale avlodi Bani Hoshim yake az avlodhoi nachandon sarvatmandi quraysh ba hisob meraft. Padari Muhammad(s) Abdullo savdogari kambizoat bud va pas az margi khud ba Omina modari Muhammad, tanho chand sar gusfand va yak gulom boqi guzosht.\ Dar mavridi shajarai nasabi Muhammad (s) malumoti mufassal mavjud ast.\ Nig.:18: 45\.

Muhammad 12 Rabi-ul-avval ( ruzi dushanbe)-i soli 570 tavallud yoftaast. In tarikh muvofiqi on rivoyate girifta shudaast, ki tibqi on Muhammad dar “soli fil”, yane sole, ki hokimi habashiya-Abraha ba Makka hujumi bemuvaffaqiyate mekunad, tavallud yoftaast.\ 4: 1. 171\

Muhammad avval az padar, qabl az tavallud, hanuz hangomi dar shikami modar budan va sipas az modar dar sinni shashsolagi yatim memonad.\ 4:1. 179\ Dar tarbiya va nigohubini Muhammadi khurdsol nakhust boboyash Abdulmuttalib va sipas amakash Abitolib naqshi asosi bozidaand. Avlodi bani hoshim hofiz va mutavallii khonai Kaba va tamomi butho, sangi siyoh (hajar-ul-asvad), chashmai Zamzam va tamomi amvolu osori mutaaliqa ba on , inchunin masuli khizmatrasoni, tamini obu taom, joi khobi hojiyon budand. Az khurdsoli Muhammad(s) dar yak chunin muhiti mazhabi nashunamo yoftaast va tabiist, ki on ba sarnavishti badii u betasir namondaast. Muvofiqi rivoyatho dar ovoni javoni Muhammad(s) avval, ba charonidani buzu gusfandoni amakash Abitolib mashgul bud va sipas dar yak safari tijoratiash uro hamrohi kardaast. Dar in safar tibqi rivoyatho yak rohibi nasroni bo nomi Buhayro ba Abitolib az risolati paygambarii Muhammad(s) khabar medihad va ba vay tavsiya mekunad, ki uro ehtiyot kunad va az u doimo bokhabar boshad.

Badtar, amakash uro ba bevazani boy Hadicha muarrifi mekunad, ki vay ba namoyandagi az u korvoni tijoratii uro ba SHom (Suriya) barad. Muhammad(s), ki hanuz qabl az khidmatgori ba Hadicha bo laqabi ” amin” -rostguvu rostqavl shuhrat yofta bud, badi az in safari bomuvaffaqiyati tijorati, ki Maysara gulomi Hadicha, hamsafari u bud, az mushohidoti khud, az raftor va havodisi bo Payombar(s) hangomi safar ruy doda, naql mekunad. Pas az in hodisa Payombar(s) ba chashmu dili Hadicha mahbubiyat paydo kard va saranjom in zani porso bo u izdivoj kard. Hadicha ham pesh az basat va ham bad az basati risolati payombari metavon guft, dar pushtuboni va dastgirii Payombar (s) va tashakkuli itminon ba nafsi u naqshi muassir va halkunandae bozid. Az yak taraf Hadicha, ki az Muhammad(s) ponzdah sol kalon bud, ba aqidahoi mazhabii u jiddi va khayrkhohona menigarist va in khud ba Muhammad(s) ruhi toza va subot mebakhshid, az tarafi digar dar natijai in izdivoj u fursat va imkoniyathoi beshtare paydo karda bud, to dar bobi masoili dini tafakkur va andesha kunad. Alalkhusus, shoyad safari tijoratii u bo korvoni Hadicha ba SHom (Suriya) imkoniyat dodand, ki u bo namoyandagoni dinu mazhabhoi digar va bo akhloqu odobi onho oshno gardad va onhoro ba etiqodot va parastishhoi qavmi khud muqoisa kunad, vale dar in bob daloili tarikhii bovaribakhsh vujud nadorad.

Muhammad(s) chun az kudaki bo parastishho va aqoidi dinii arabhoi butparast az nazdiki shinos bud, har ruz on buthoi bejonu beruhro medid va guzashta az in mushohida mekard, ki chi guna rijoli quraysh dar sari manofei moli az parastishhoi johiliya suiistifoda mekardand, etiqodash ba dini ajdodonii khud to raft sust meshud. Rivoji fisqu fasod, masti, sudkhuri, qasoshoi khunin, odati kushtani farzandi dukhtari navzod az jumlai on odot va rusume budand, ki sharoiti ijtimoii onruzai arabro mutashannij, vaziyati manaviro kharob karda budand. Muhammadi javonro in vaziyati ijtimoi va odathoi khurofotivu soddalavhonai badavi qone karda nametavonist. In ast, ki u shoyad dar justu jui arzishhoi volotar va goyavu etiqodi alotar megashta ast.

Durust ast, ki buhroni mafkurai butparasti hamzamon bo inqirozi sokhti qabilaviyu avlodi va beetibor gardidani arzishho va etiqodoti on ba paydoishi islom zamina omoda kardand. Vale ba har surat in zamina biduni ejozi shakhsiyati Muhammad(s), ilhomoti khoriqulodai u, mardonagi, istiqomat, sabru shahomati u gumon bud, ki ba paydoishi dine chun islom anjomad. Guzashta az in baroi paydoishi dini islom omilu niyozmandihoi ziyode berun az sarzamini Arabiston niz mavjud budand. Inqirozi dokhilii dini nasroni, ba dini hukmroni davlati tabdil yoftani on, paydoishi firqahoi mukholif chun: nasturiya, monofizitiya va gayra; hamchunin inqirozi dokhilii zardushtiya dar davrai sosoniyon, az oini tavhidii Zardusht dur shudan va ba dini tabaqai ashrof tabdil yoftani on va gayra yak niyozi hamagonro ba andeshavu goyai navi ormoni ba vujud ovarda bud.

Tabiist, ki barkhurd bo adyoni digar niz hanifho- dinjuyon, muballigoni yaktoparastiro ba targibi dini nav vodor mekard. Muhaqqiqoni islomshinosro aqda bar on ast, ki tasiri dini nasroni, makhsusan dar oyathoi bakhshida ba ruzi qiyomat, duzakh, va azobu jazohoi on ziyod ast. Umuman talimot dar borai maod- rastokhez pas saz marg, dar on dunyo, bozjui va mukofoti amal, tasviri jannat va duzakh muassirtarin naqshero dar paydoishi islom bozidaand.

OGOZI NUBUVVAT. Muvofiqi akhbori sarchashmaho Muhammad (s) soli 610 ba targibi dini nav ogoz kardaast. To Muhammad (s) digaron ham budaand, ki targibi dini nav mekardand, shoyad mahz dini islom naboshad, vale targibi yaktoparasti- tavhid dar on joy dosht va onhoro, chunon ki ishora shud, “hanif” menomidaand. Muhammad(s) niz, dar avval dini khudro “dini hanif” menomid va in sifat badho niz hamradifi “islom”, “mubin” va gayra ba kor raftaast. Nomi baze az onhoe, ki hanifgaro yo tavhidgaro budand chun: Musaylima; Sajjoh, barodari Hadicha Varaqa ibni Navfal to mo boqi mondaand .

Hulosa, dar sinni chihilsolagi avvalin bor vahyi ilohi ba Muhammad(s) nozil gardid. Dar in davron Muhammad (s) zud-zud dar gushai gore(gori Hiro) berun az Makka dar domanai kuhe gushanishin gashta ba ibodat mashgul meshudaast. Dar mavridi az kujo va ba kadom angeza ba gushanishini iqdom namudani Payombari Islom(s), qabl az basat (daryofti risolati payombari) khabari ziyode dar dast nest. Ibni Ishoq bo isnod ba hadise ovardaast, ki Rasuli Hudo(s) az rui odati quraysh dar johiliya sole yak moh iqdom ba gushanishini dar gori Hiro mekard ( 4: J.1. s.253) Hamchunin malum, ki baze payravoni dini yahudi va nasroni, ki zohidi pesha karda budand, chunin tarzi zindagi doshtand. Hulosa, dar yake az ruzhoi mohi Ramazon hangomi gushanishiniash dar gori Hiro ba u avvalin oyati Quron az surai 96-“al- Alaqa” -nozil meshavad va pas az chande tavaqquf oyoti digar niz daryoft gardidand .

Tablig va davat ba islom se soli avval sirri (pinhoni) buda ast. Pas az elon va oshkoro shudani davat niz, payravoni Payombar (s) dar avval ziyod nabudaand. Tibqi Quron va rivoyot farishtai khudo Jabrail oyotro nozil menamud. Dar mavridi chigunagii nozil shudani oyot va holati ruhii Muhammad(s) pas az on, ba tafsil rivoyot ziyod ast. Nakhust, talimoti Muhammad(s)-ro kheshovandonash: avval zani vafodorash Hadicha, dukhtarhoyash (Ruqiya, Ummul-Qulsum, Fotima), Ali ibn Abutolib (r) (amakbacha va badtar domodash- shavhari Fotima) qabul mekunand. Kame badtar gulomi ozodshuda va pisarkhondash Zayd ibn Horisa, savdogari boy Abubakr (badtar padararusash va bad az vafoti u khalifi avval),Usmon pisari Affon mardi sarvatmand (badtar seyumin az khulafoi roshidin gardid), va az- Zubayr (badtar sarlashkari mashhur, ki bar forsho dar muhoribai Qodisiya s. 673 galaba ba dast ovard), savdogar Talha va Abdurahmon ibn Avf va digaron ba u payvastand, vale ba har hol qabuli davati Muhammad(s) ba kundi pesh meraft, hatto dar muddati chahor sol adadi ashobi Payombar bo zanon va gulomoni eshon az chihil tan beshtar nabud.

Ashrofi Makka az savdogaron va sudkhuroni gulomdor iborat budand. Onho dar avval ba davathoi Muhammad(s) etibor nadoda boshand ham, bad az afzudani safi u va alalkhusus badi hamlaho va dargirii u ba dinu oin va khudoyoni onho rohi dushmani va taqibro pesh giriftand chunki amali uro baroi subot va manofe siyosii Makka khavfnok meshumoridand.

Voqean, ashrof va sarvatmandoni Makka davatu tabligoti Muhammadro baroi manfiathoi khud khele khavfnok mehisobidand, chunki dinu oyini onho va maqami Makka va khonai Kaba hamchun markazi mazhabi dar marazi khutar bud az in ru bo u ba muboriza barkhostand. Dushmanoni sarsakht va khavfnoki Muhammad(s) savdogari sarvatmand, sardori avlodi ummaviyon Abusufiyon bo zanash Hinda, Amr ibn Hoshim, ki onro khudi Muhammad(s) Abujahl (padari joholat) nomida bud va inchunin amakash Abd-al-Uzzal ibn Abdulmuttalib budand, ki okhirinro Muhammad (s) Abulahab (yane duzakhi) nomida ast.

Hulosa, davat ba dini islom khele ba mushkili pesh meraft, payravoni Muhammad(s) hanuz khele nochiz va aksariyat az tabaqoti poyoni: faqironu gulomon va oilahoi kambizoat budand. Taqib va shikanjai musulmonon ruz az ruz beshtar meshud va onho majbur shudand, ki ba kishvari Habashiya hijrat kunand.\4: 1. 343-364\ In hijrati avval dar soli chahorumi basat-paygambari ba vuqu payvast.

Davati Muhammad asosan mabni ba yaktoparasti (tavhid) va qabuli risolati paygambarii khudash bud. Az matnhoi Quron barmeoyad, ki butparaston ba u bovar namekardand. Az u baroi isboti paygambariash taqozoi gybgui va mujiza mekardand. CHunki shunida budand, ki paygambaroni bani Isroil (yahudiya) va nasroni mujizahoe nishon dodaand. Muhammad boshad, khudro hamchun yak inson, misli hamai odamon muarrifi mekard, donandai gaybro tanho Hudo meguft. Vazifai khudro faqat az elomi khatar va ogohonidan az azobi ruzi vopasin va najoti insoniyat bo davatu hidoyat onho ba roh rost “sirot-ul-mustaqim” medonist. Mujizai uro aksari ulamoi islom tanho Quron mehisoband. Hudi Payombar(s) baroi isboti haqqoniyati guftahoyash odamonro ba istifodai aql va andesha davat mekard.

Az mubohisoti qroni malum meshavad, ki arob az parastishi dini padaroni khud dast kashidan namekhostand va bovari ham nadoshtand, ki yak mardi oddie misli Muhammad(s) dar muqobili on hama ayonu ashrofi Makka mavridi inoyati khudo qaror girifta, ba simati payombari intikhob shuda boshad. Arabho baze talimoti uro masalan, qiyomat- rastokhez yo ehyoi dubora, ruzi hisobu dovariro asotir va afsonae besh nameshumoridand. Hamchunin meguftand, moro ba juz dahr chize namekushad.\ Q.45: 24\. Muhammad(s)payvasta onhoro az azobhoi okhirat, sahnahi havlnoki duzakh, ki baroi kofiron ast ogoh mekard. Hadafi asosii Payombar(s) ba tavhid khondani butparaston va beetibor sokhtani khudoyoni onho, butparasti bud. Qurayshiyon bo har roh khostand Muhammadro az in roh boz dorand, ham mansabu martaba va ham molu sarvat peshnihod kardand, to u az in amal dast kashad, natija nadod. Dast ba fishoru zuri, habsu muhosirai iqtisodi va mani ravobit bo avlodi Bani Hoshim dar mahallaashonro niz ozmudand va paymone bo nomi “Paymoni sahifa” imzo kardand, ki tibqi on bo khonavodai Bani Hoshim izdivoj va kharidu furush man va avlodi bani Hoshim huquqi az shiab \dara\-i khud berun omadanro nadoshtand. In muhosira se sol davom kard vale benatija bud. Hulosa bo hej vositae irodai Muhammad(s)-ro shikasta natavonistand. \ 14. s.90\

Dushmanoni Muhammad(s) dar ibtido ba kushtani u jurat nakardand, chunki avvalan Abutolib va amakoni digari u mardoni obrumand budand va uro himoya mekardand, zanash Hadicha niz pushtiboni u bud. Soniyan, muvofiqi odati arabhoi johiliya agar chunin kore mekardand, bo avlodi bani Hoshim dar holati qassosi khunin qaror megiriftand. In ast, ki bo vujudi fishoru ikhtor va peshgiriho davat va faoliyathoi tabligotii Muhammad(s) ruzafzun bud. Qurayshiyon niz bo tamomi rohu vositahoe, ki dar ikhtiyor doshtand faoliyati Payombar(s)-ro mahdud va az gustarishi on jilavgiri mekardand. Az jumla Payombar(s) nametavonist ba juz dar atrofi khonai Abutolib va beruni az shahr, dar teppai Safo tabligu davat kunad. Avvalho ibodat va tablig pinhoni dar khonai yake az musalmonon bo nomi al-Akrama barguzor meshud. Badan davat oshkoro gardid. Ammo dar soli duvozdahumi basat Muhammad(s) dar muddati kutoh az har du pushtiboni asosiash mahrum meshavad. Avval, amakash Abutolib va badi yak moh zani mehrubonash Hadicha vafot mekunand. Badi in voqia vaziyati Muhammad(s) va payravonash sakht mushkil gardid. Amakash Abulahab, ki sardori avlod gardida bud az pushtibonii u dast mekashad. Az in ru rohi choraero andeshidan lozim shud.

Dar chunin vaziyati vaznin nogah, dari umed ba rui u kushoda meshavad. Hanuz dar mavsimi hajji soli 620 m. dar bozori Ukoz ittifoqan Muhammad bo shash tan mardoni YAsribi suhbat mekunad va onho ba chunin andesha aftoda budand, ki uro ba peshvoi yo hakami khud barguzinand.

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