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Dini Buddoi (Buddizm)

Paydoish: Dini buddoi ( yo buddoiya) az navi dinhoi hindu oriyoni ast, ki ba darajai dini jahoni rasidaast. Az in ru dini buddoiro rohi oriyoi niz guftaand.

In din dar okhirhoi asri U1 t.m. ba vujud omadaast. Dini buddoiya aksulamale ba sokhti kostavii Hinduston va oini hinduiyai on budaast. Buddoiya az nazari paydoish dar bisyor mavrid bo dini jayniya nazdik buda, chun jayniya maqsadi buddoiya niz paydo kardani rohi najoti vasetare az ranjho: dardu alamho, azobu mashaqqati zindagi va tavalludi takror ba takrori ruh -sansara bud.

budizm

Hangomi zuhuri buddoiya jomeai hindi ba chahor tabaqa (kasta)-i az ham judo taqsim shuda bud. On tabaqaho: barahmanhr Vgatt8)-ruhoniyon; kshatriya (K8Ia1pua8-surkhpustho)-tabaqai nizomiyoni oriyoni; vasi yo famisiya (zardho)- hunarmandonu barzgoroni oriyoi; sudra (yo shudra-siyohho)-barzgaroni siyoh az qavmhoi bumi. Tanho se tabaqai avval, ki oriyoi budand, ozodagon, mukhtoron ba shumor meraftand, vale kastai okhirinro az har jihat noqisulkhilqat va 1ast mehisobidand.

Zindagy va talimoti Buddo

Asosguzori buddoiya shohzoda (az tabaqai kshatri) Siddharta (Bbbag^a), ki nomi khonavodagiash Gautamo (Oai1asha, nomi digari u Sakiyamuna yo SHakiyamuna) buda, hududi soli 563(yo 560) t.m. 1oy ba arsai hayot meguzorad.

Nisbat ba ovoni kudakivu javonii u rivoyatho ziyode mavjudand. Muhim on ast, ki avvalan, chun digar asosguzoroni dinho, dar natijai homilai bakorat az modarash tavallud shuda,dar nozu nemat davroni kudakivu javoniro 1ushti sar kardaast. Ammo dar sinni bistsolagi bad az mushohidai se manzara: bemori piri marg az zindagonii shohona va darbori dast kashida, rohi biyobon, darveshi va tarki khostahoi nafsoni va riyozatu darveshiro 1esh megirad. Badi riyozati ziyod va tay kardani du tariqate, ki yake rohi aqloni bar asosi diqqati nazaru istidlol bud va on digari tariqati riyozat va zuhd bud ba joe namerasad. In du rohtariqat shavqi haqiqattalabii uro taskin nabakhshidand va uro ba sarmanzili maqsud narasondand, vale u noumed nashud.

Ruze dar makone, ki bo nomi Budha Gaya( nazdiki sh.Banoras) maruf gashta, rasid va daruni jangal,besha rafta zeri darakhte binishast (badan on darakhtro darakhti ilm-yo budhi laqab kardand) va ba tafakkuru muroqiba pardokht va ahd namud, ki az zeri in darakht nakhezad, to vaqte ki haqiqatro darnayobad. Nihoyat pas az haft hafta(pas az 49 ruz) ba martabai saodati mahz «shshroq»-n komil noil gasht. In vokea dar sinni 35-solagiash rukh dod. Sipas u ba khud guft, ki olitarin martabai hayotro daryoftam va taklifi ruhonii khudro ba poyon rasonidam, digar man on Gautamai sobiq nestam. Az in pas «Buddo» shud, yane munavvar bo nuri ilmi Haqiqat gardid.

Buddo dar hududi soli 544 (yo 483) t o melod dar sinni 80 (yo 86) solagy chashm az jahon pushid.

Gautama misli paygambaroni dini nasrony firistoda rasulyo paygambari Hudo yo pisari U bashumor nameravad, baraks Gautama ba olami khudoyon bolo rafta, ba onho maviza meguyad va dar navbati khud borho khudoyon hujrai uro dar zamin ziyorat kardaand. In din misli digar dinho khudoi khosi khud va asli khudoshinosy nadorad.

Dini buddoy asosan ba masalahoi akhloqy va rohi najot tavajjuh dorad. Muvofiqi talimoti buddoiya sarchashmai amali soleh, rohi najot va rasidan ba nirvonasaodati mahz az tariqi payravy az se haqikat(se gavhari qimmatbaho): Budda. Dkharma va Sangkha muyassar meshavad.

In se haqiqat arkoni in dinro tashkil medihand. Haqiqat yo rukni avval iborat az bovary ba maqomi Buddo, haqiqati sonydkharma iborat az bovary va payravy az talimoti u va seyum -sangkha bovary va dastgirivu yory ruhoniyat va avliyoi in din ast.

Buddoiyon misli payravoni hinduiya ba tanosukh, karma va sansara bovary dorand. Buddo tanho rohi vasei najot az sansararo nishon dod. Hudi zanjiri sansaraomadu rafti Buddo ba in dinyo daleli in ast.

Boyad guft, ki dar dinhoi hinduoriyoy chy, oriyoii hindy va chy oriyoii erony asosguzoroni in oinho, dar simoi Buddo va paygambar Zardusht asli kayhony dorand va in zuhuri onho, zuhuri avvalin nest. Dar in robita sharhi holi asotirii Buddo dar shakli khele mukhtasaru fushurdavu sodda chunin ast.

Dar tuli zamoni benihoyat daroz- kalpi ( 1 kalp – muddati zamonest, ki barobar ba 24 000 «soli khudoist» yo 8 640 000 000 soli insonist) Buddo dar zamin dar shakli mavjudhoi zindai gunogun takror ba takror – 83 bor hamchun avliyo, 58 bor shoh, 24 bor ruhony, 18 bor maymun, 13 bor tojir, 12 bor murg, 8 bor goz, 6 bor fil, hamchunin mohy, kalamush, najjor, ohangar, qurbaqa, mor va g-ra tavallud shudaast. Az nigohi buddoiyon Gautama abarnavi bisyore az buddohoi peshguzashta meboshad, ki dar khud khususiyathoi afrodi ziyodro tajassum karda.

Muvofiqi bovarii buddoiyon to Gautama shash buddo dar zamin zindagy kardaand, Baroi hamin dar baze joyhoi muqaddas (mas. dar Sanchi va Bkharkhuta) haft qadamgoh- mabad sokhtaand va haft darakhti muborak ba iftikhori on haft Buddo shinondaand.

Buddo doroi qobiliyathoi mujizaofariyu sohirii ziyode tasvir kardaand. U metavonist ba zeri zamin faroyad, ba osmon baroyad, dar havo parvoz kunad, sahnaro otashbor sozad va har suratu shaklero, ki khohad qabul kunad. Dar badani u 32 – nishonai kalon va 80-nishonai khurd bo khususiyathoi sohiry mavjud budaast. U doroi nomu sifathoi bisyorest: Takhtagota(one ki meoyadu meravad), Arkhat (nobudkunanda), Akhtagata (nekofarin), Budda(bedorshuda), CHina(foteh), Bkhagovata (sherovoz) va gayra meboshad.

Harchand dar oyini Gautama dar mavridi ibodati khudoi khose, ofarida shudan yo nashudani olam sukhane nest, ammo dar adabiyoti makhayany Gautama (Buddo) na hamchun odam, balki khudo tasavvur karda shudaast, Vayro hamchun padidai kayhony shinokhtaand. Jismi tabii uro gayri voqey meshumorand. Buddo muvofiki talimoti makhayana kayhonest, ki miqdori ziyodi jismhoi takhayuly -padidaho (fantonho) meofarad, ki olamhoi gunogun az jumla zaminro niz ziyorat namuda, goyaho- andeshahoi khudro targib mekunand. Insonho in padida (fantom)-horo dida, odam gumon mekunand. Dar voqe, in fantomho bo hikmati Buddo va jihati kumak ba hamai mavjudoti zinda, baroi ba rohi rost hidoyat kardani onho, mustahkam namudani etiqodi onho ofarida shudaast.[1]

[1]  V.I. Koren, tam je.- S.7.

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