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AZ TARAFI AMORATI BUHORO ZAPT SHUDANI BUHOROI SHARQI

Osiyoi Miyona hamchun kishvari az sarvathoi zerizamini boy kayho boz divdati mamlakathoi kapitalistiro ba khud chalb namuda bud. Dar navbati avval baroi ba mustamlikai khud tabdil dodani Osiyoi Miyona Rossiyai podshohi va Angliya muboriza meburdand. Hatto sultonii Turkiya va shokhi Eron tayyor budand, ki yagon porcha zamin az Osiyoi Miyona ba dast orand. In davlatho az solhoi 20-umi asri XIX sar karda, ba korhoi dokhilii khonigarihoi Osiyoi Miyona faolona dakholat mekardand.
Az miyonahoi asri XIX dar bozorhoi Osiyoi Miyona molhoi anglisi dokhil shudan girifta, to ba tang karda barovardani molhoi Rossiya az bozor ovarda rasond. In takhdidi Angliya Rosiyaro machbur sokht, ki nashi zabti Osiyoi Miyonaro kashad. SHikast khurdani Rossiya dar Qrim solhoi 1853-1856 khukumati podshokhiro vodor mesokht, ki zabtkorii Osiyoi Miyonaro tezonad. Inchunin, dar in solho Rossiyai podshokhi ba rokhi taravdiyoti kapitalisti dokhil shuda, ekhtiyochoti ziyod ba ashyoi khom dosht. In manbai ashyoi khomro Rossiya dar bozorhoi Osiyoi Miyona medid.
Soli 1868 boshad, bayni Rossiyayu khonigarii Quqand sulkhnma basta shud, ki muvofiki on Quqand khudro tobei Rossiya donist.
23 iyuli soli 1868 bayni Rossiyai podshohi va Bukhoro sulh basta shud. Muvofiki sharthoi sulkhnoma tamomi nohiyahoi az tarafi kushuni Rossiya ishol shuda – Huchand, Uroteppa, Pachakent, Samarkand, Qaaqurgon to Zirabulok dar ikhtiyori Rossiya guzasht.(Litvinov V.M. CHerez Bukharu na Pamir. Istoricheskiy vestnik.- T.9. -1904.- S. 406). Aknun vay bo davlathoi khorichi mustakilona munosibat karda nametavonist. Bukhoro ba khukumati podshokhi 500 hazor sum tovoni chang dod. Savdogaroni rus dar Bukhoro ozodona savdo kardan va sokhtani dukonhoi savdoi hukuq paydo kardand. Hukumati amir vazifador bud, ki bekhatari va ozodona amal kardani namoyandagoni Rossiyaro khimoya kunad.
Bad az ba dast darovardani Bukhoro qushunhoi rus bar ziddi khonigarii Hiva huchum karda, onro machbur kardand, ki 12 avgusti soli 1873 bo Rossiya sulh bandand.
Dar natichai shartnomahoe, ki solhoi 1868 va soli 1873 davlathoi feodalii Osiyoi Miyona – khonigarii Kuqand, amorati Bukhoro va khonigarii Hiva bo Rossiya podshohi basta budand, mustamlikai hukumati podshohii Rus gardidand.
Hukumati podshohi baroi idora kardani kismati isholshudai Osiyoi Miyona dar soli 1867 bo faro giriftani viloyathoi Sirdaryo va Haftrud general-gubernatorii Turkistonro tasis namud. Dar sari on general-adyutant K.P.Kaufman qaror girift. Vay haq dosht, ki bo davlathoi hamsoya muzokiroti diplomati barpo namoyad, chang elon namoyad, sulh bandad va monandi inho.
Bad az bayn burdani istiqloliyati davlati khonii Quqand, 19 fevrali soli 1876 khoki davlati khoni ba nomi viloyati Farona ba hayati kishvari Turkiston dokhil karda shud.
Amiri Bukhoro Muzaffar imkoniyati khudro az dast doda bud va dar justujui ba dast ovardani manfiathoi nav bud. Dar in lahza amir amaliyothoi changii khudro dar qismati CHanubi SHarqii Osiyoi Miyona davom medod. «Amir Muzaffar dar in nohiyaho quvvai ziyodi khudro cham namuda, dar okhiri soli 1866 – avvali soli 1867 ba Boysun va Dehnav huchum kard. Dar muqobili u dastahoi ikhtiyorii mulkhoi mahali nimmustaqil bo sardorii beki Hisor qaror girifta budand». (Gafurov B. Tochikon.- S.174).
To istilo shudanashon bekigarihoi Bukhoroi SHarqi khudro mulkhoi mustaqil va nimmustaqili feodali medonistand. (Kislyakov N.A. Ocherki po istorii Karategina). «Hukumati podshohii Rossiya khost ba amiri Bukhoro ba tarzi chubron baroi hokimiyati az dast dodaash istilo namudani bekigarihoi Bukhoroi SHarqi, az chumla, CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikiston yori rasonad». (Gafurov B. Tochikon.- S. 169).
Az tiramohi soli 1868 sar karda amir lashkari
yakkachini khudro ba nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarqii Tochiksiton (Bukhoroi SHarki) firistod. CHanghoi avvalin dar atrofii bekigarii Boysun ba vujud omadand. Badi zadukhurd beki Boysun gurekhta, bekigari ba dasti odamoni amir guzasht. Dar in vaqt feodaloni kismati CHanubu SHarkii Tojikiston bo sardorii beki Hisori SHodmon, beki Dekhnav Abdulkarimdodho va bo yorii beki Kulobu Baljuvon Sarikhon kuvvahoi khudro dar atrofii Hisor muttamarkaz namudand. «Tabaqai hukmroni nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarkii Tojikiston khostand harakati kushuni amiri Bukhororo ba markazi hokimiyathoi khud roh nadihand» (Iskandarov B. Iz istoriya proniknoveniya kapitalisticheskikh otnosheniy v ekonomiku dorevolyusionnogo Tadjikistana. -Dushanbe.- 1976.-S.12).
Dar avval in bekho maqsadi tashkil kardani dastahoi makhsuse doshtand, ki az ziddiyati pisari amir Muzaffar Abdulmalik bo padarash istifoda barand. Abdulmalik az Guzor va SHakhrisabzu Qarshi kushun gird ovarda, CHirokchi va Qarshiro ba dast ovard. Abdulmalik khost ba Bukhoro hujum namuda, amirro sarnagun sozad. Vale az baski khukumati podshokhi az baqoi amorat va dar sari on istodani amir Muzaffar manfiatdor bud, khohishi u bechunu charo ijro shud. Bo rozigii general-gubernatorii Turkiston sardori okrugi harbii Zarafshon general Abramov bo kushuni khud ba Bukhoro omada, ba amir yori rasonid. Hamin tarik, Abdulmalik shikast khurda firor namud.
Hamin tavr, amir pisari duyumi khud Abdulmuminturaro beki Qarshi tain namuda, tamomi qushuni khudro ba in jo ovard, ki sardorii onro YAkubbek-kuibegi ba ukhda dosht.
«Az hujumi kushunhoi amiri Bukhoro ba nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarkii Tojikiston (ki to on vakt mulkhoi mustakil budand), tabaqai khukmronu bekho Abdulmalikro pushtiboni namuda, mavqei khudmuhofizatiro giriftand.
Zadurdho dar atrofii bekigarii Hisor sar shud. Tupkhonahoi hardu taraf ham zaif bud. Hisoriho hamagi chor tup doshtand, ki 2 toyash chuyani va 2 toyash misi bud. Dar onho aslihahoi otashfishon ba mikdori lozimi nabud. Binobar in, dastaho aksar vakt ba jangi tan ba tan meguzashtand. Qushuni Bukhoro dar natijai harbu zarbi sakht, khususan, dar mavqei Amoksoy Hisorihoro akib nishonda, onhoro dar kalai Dekhnav ba muhosira girift. Sipas, shabokhun zada qalaro ishgol namud. Sarbozoni Amir ba qatli ommavii dahshatangez shuru karda, har kasi ba dastashon aftodaro nobud sokhtand.
Ba chande az hisoriho va ittifokchiyoni onho muyassar gardid, ki ba tarafi Qarotegin, Darvoz va Kulob gurekhta, chon ba salomat barand. Azon chumla, khudi beki Hisor Abdukarimdodkhoh dar Kulob panoh burd. Ammo beki on cho Sarakhoni siyosatmadoru makkor uro hamrokhi chand nafar rafiqonash dastgir namuda, ba amir Muzaffar suporid. Sarakhon niyat dosht, ki bo in vasila tavajjuhi hukumati Bukhororo ba khud chalb namuda hukumati beki Kulobro dar dast nigoh dorad.
Vale harakati sarbozoni amir ba tarafi SHarq hamono davom mekard. Sarakhon, ki mulkhoi ziyodero dar poyonobi daryohoi Kofarnikhon va Vakhsh sohib bud, baroi muttakhid kardani qabilahoi in nohiyaho va bo kuvvai onho giriftani peshi rohi sarbozoni amir mekushid. Beki navi Dekhnav Ulugbek ba kumaki u shitoft. Onho yakchoya dar avvali soli 1869 aholii mahalliro baroi mukovimat namudan ba mukobili kushunhoi amiri Bukhoro davat kardand». Azbaski Sarakhon dar bayni mardum bo shiori muborizai ziddi andozhoi chori kardai amir vaz mekard, ba zeri bayraki u ikhtiyoroni beshumor cham omadand». (Iskandarov B.I. Vostochnaya Bukhara i Pamir v period prisoedinenie. – S.174)
Amiri Bukhoro va nazdikoni sipohiyonash ba nabardhoi nav hamatarafa tayyori medidand. Az chumla, bo sardorii YAkubbekkushbegi kushuni makhsus tashkil doda shud. YAkubbek bo dastaash az Surkhandaryo guzashta, tamomi sarzamini Hisorro ba kharobazor tabdil dod va sipas rohi Balchuvonu Kulobro pesh girift. «Har yak hamlai sarbozoni Bukhoro ba gorati shahru dehot va qatli mardumi begunokh tamom meshud. Dar yak khudi Hisor 5 khazor kas ba qatl rasonida shud. (Istoriya Tadjikskogo naroda.- S.171).
Ba maqsadi komilan az bayn burdani istiqloliyati in nohiyaho amir Muzaffar farmud, ki hokim Abdulkarimro bo tamomi ahli oilaash nobud sozad. Sarakhon boshad, az hukmi qatl tarsida, ba vositai daryoi Amu ba khoki Afoniston guzasht.
Saroni kabila va ashrofi feodalii mulkhoi zabtkardai Bukhoro bo odamone, ki nisbat ba amir sadoqat doshtand, ivaz karda shudand. YAkubbekkushbegi hokimi tamomi in viloyat tain gardida, mulkhoi Hisor va Kulob takhti kalamravii u karor girift. Ba YAkubbek dar hokimiyat ikhtiyoroti takriban nomahdud doda shud. Saidniyozi qipchoq beki Balchuvon va Nachmuddinkhocha beki Kulob tain gardidand. In hukmrononi nav, korro az zulmu sitam va sitonidani andozu khirochhoi khonakharobkunanda sar karda, kamtarin etirozi mardumro berahmona furu
menishonidand.
Ahvoli ommai mehnatkash boz ham taboh gardid. Az in ru ba qatlu kushtorhoi vahshiyona nigoh nakarda, norizogii aholii dar shahru dehot besh az besh kuvvat megirift, Ki bazan ba oshubhoi ziddi istismori feodali tabdil meyoft.
Amaldorone, ki az tarafi amir Muzaffar ba vazifahoi baland tain megardidand, dar andak vakt bo zulmu istibdod dar bayni mardum norozigiho ba vuchud meovardand. Dar bayni mardumi Balchuvon, Kulob va Kuronteppa Sarakhoni firori shuhrati kalonero sohib gardida bud. Vay baroi ba sari hokimiyat bargashtan va pesh kardani Bukhoriyon az Kulobu Balchuvon lahzai musoid mekoft. Amir Muzaffar Abdukarimro dar Balchuvon bek tain kard. Abdukarim dar Balchuvon khudsarona hajmi zakot va khirochro ziyod namud, ki boisi sar zadanii oshub gardid. Ziyoda az 2000 oshubgaron kalai Balchuvonro muhosira namudand. Abdukarim tarsida ba Hisor gurekht. Oshubgaron kalai Bekro ishgol namuda, dokhili on gardidand. Molu mulki bek va amaldoronro musodira namudand. «Abdukarim az beki Kulobu Hisor bo vositai maktub yori pursid, to ki dar pakhshi in oshub ba vay yori rasonand. Beki Hisoru Kulob ba vay yak guruh firistodand, ki dar pakhshi in shurish ba Abdukarim musoidat namudand. Badi zadukhurd yak qismi ishtirokkunandagoni shurish ba tarafi Darvoz, ki tobei hej khonigariyu amorat nabud, gurekhtand. Qushunhoi Hisoru Kulob yak kismi shurishgaronro dastgir namuda, ba qatl rasonidand. Bad az in Abdukarim ba Baljuvon bargasht». (Iskandarov B.I. Vostochnaya Bukhara i Pamir v period prisoedineniya Sredney Azii k Rossii.- S.53).
Sarbozoni amir kasero amon nadoda, hatto aholii shahru dehahoi mukobilat nakardaro ham nestu nobud mekardand. Az mulkhoi istiloshuda, bo nomi «Amonpuli» khiroj ham mesitondand. Mablagi az had ziyode, ki ba in roh ba dast omada bud, baroi afzudani sarvati sarkardahoi feodalii Bukhoro sarf gardida, kismi ziyodi on ba amir firistoda shud.
Bad az zadukhurd, bahori soli 1869 bekigarihoi Hisoru Kulob va vodii Vakhsh az tarafi kushuni amiri Bukhoro bo sardorii YAkubbek-Kushbegi shikast khurdand, ki dar in kor sahmi hukumati podshohii rus niz bud. Dar okhiri soli 1869 amorati Bukhoro mavqei khudro dar kismati bekigarihoi hamvor – Hisor, Kulobu Baljuvon mustahkam namud.
Habari zabt namudani nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarkii Tojikiston az tarafi amiri Bukhoro ba Hiva rasid. Dar mohi yanvari soli 1870 safiri Bukhoro ba Hiva omad.
Dar ayni hol amorati Bukhoro amaliyoti istilokoronai khudro dar kismati CHanubu SHarkii Osiyoi Miyona idoma medod. Aknun navbati zarba zadan ba Darvozu Qarotegin rasida bud. In mulkho dar in vakt takhti nufuzi davlati khonii Quqand voqe gardida budand.
«Rahimsho az zadukhurdhoi dokhili istifoda burda, hokimiyati Qaroteginro ba dast girift va bo niyati ustuvor gardonidani mavqei khud khar goh tobeiyati khudro ba amorati Bukhoro etirof menamud». (Iskandarov B.I. Vostochnaya Bukhara i Pamir v period prisoedineniya Sredney Azii k Rossii. -S.173).
In holat boisi ba vujud omadani boz yak ikhtilofi bayni Bukhorovu Quqand gardid. Harchand hukumati on vaktai Quqand Hudoyorkhonro amiri Bukhoro Muzaffarkhon ba takht shinonda bud, munosibati in du davlati Osiyoi Miyona besh az pesh tezu tund shuda, oshkoro rangi dushmanona megirift. Dar sarkhadi Qarotegin zadukhurdkhoi sakht ba amal omad, ki dar on kuvvahoi amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Quqand ishtirok namudand.
Bo vuchudi in, vaziyat nazar ba 10-15 soli pesh to yak andoza digar gardida bud. Peshtar changhoi bayni Bukhorovu Quqand solhoi daroz davom mekard. Ammo dar solhoi 60-um va ibtidoi soli 70-umi asri XIX dar Osiyoi Miyona Rossiyai podshokhi sokhibikhtiyor gardida, Bukhorovu Quqand, ba valadi u tabdil yofta budand. Har yak changu chidoli bayni amorat va davlati khoni ba etibori imperiyai Rossiya zarar merasonid. Ilova bar in, doirahoi khukmroni Peterburg va Toshkent, ki Turkistonro ba tasarrufi khud darovarda budand, ba inkishofi robitahoi tichorativu iktisodii bayni viloyathoi khonii in sarzamin az rui manfiati khud tavajjuh zokhir menamud. Ba in vajh soli 1870 general-gubernatori Turkiston Kaufman ba amir murochiat namud, ki az changi ziddi khonii Quqand dast kashad.
Soli 1875 khoni Quqand bo farmoni general-gubernatori Turkiston az Qarotegin dast kashid. Vaziyat yak muddat ba oromi ru ovard. Hokimi Qarotegin Said Muhammadinsho harakat mekard, ki istiqloliyati mulki khudro tamin namoyad, vale in mayli u mavridi pisandi mamuriyati Turkiston karor nagirift.
Hukumati podshokhi bo maqsadi mustakhkam kardani mavqei khud dar mahalhoi rokhi Pomir va az chihati manaviyu siyosi tasir rasonidan ba hokimi Qarotegin ba vodi Oloy ekspeditsiya firistod. Dar okhiri iyul va avgusti soli 1876 general Skobelev, ki nakhustin gubernatori harbii Fargona tain shuda bud, bo yak dastai kalon, ki ba hayati on harbiyon, donishmandoni chugrofiya, tabiatshinosi va nuchum (L.F.Kostenko, V.F.Oshanin, A.R.Banidora va digraron) dokhil meshudand, ba samti kukhdomanhoi Pomir rahsipor gardidand. (Gafurov B. Tochikon.- S. 175).
In ekspeditsiya meboist tahqiq mekard, ki
khukumati podshokhi idomadikhandai khaki khonii Quqand ba nohiyahoi kukhitoni Pomir meboshad. Gayr az in, vay ba hokimi nimmustakili mulki feodalii Qarotegin Said Muhammadinsho boyad khotirnishon menamud, ki qalamravi u baroi askaroni Rossiya komilan dastras ast. «Dere naguzashta Said Muhammadinsho baroi «gardankashi» az hokimiyat mahrum gardid va ba choi u Rahimsho, ki to in vaqt dar Bukhoro mezist tain shud. Dar nimai duyumi solhoi 70- um amiri Bukhoro ba tarafi Qarotegin kushunhoi khudro firistod». (Gafurov B. Tochikon.- S.175). Amir Muzaffar badi muvaffakiyathoi changi dar bekigarihoi Dehnav, Hisor, Kulob, tiramohi soli 1877 takhti sarvarii Hudoynazar – dodkhoh ba tarafi Qarotegin huchum ovard. Dar naticha Qaroteginro (soli 1877) purra tobei khud gardonidand. (Kislyakov N.A. Ocherki po istorii Karotegina.-1941.- S.151). Rahimkhon bo fireb dar Bukhoro kushta shud, ba choi vay Hudoynazar Atolik beki Qarotegin tain karda meshavad.
Hamin tariq Karoteginro ba katori mulkhoi khud dokhil namuda, baroi zabt namudani Darvoz tayyori medid. Agar mulkkhoi kuhistoni Pomiri Garbiro ba nazar nagirem, Darvoz okhirin mulki sohili rosti daryoi Panch, ba shumor meraft.
Bo suporishi general-gubernatori Turkiston ba Darvoz kuvvai harbi ravon karda shud. Vale ba tezi zabt kardani Darvoz khom baromad.
«Amir Muzaffar bo hillayu nayrang shohi Darvoz Sirochiddinro baroi muloqot ba SHahrisabz ovarda, uro favran ba habs girift» (Iskandarov B.I. Iz istorii proniknoveniya kapitalisticheskikh otnosheniy…-Dushanbe, 1976.- S.13).
Vale in khiyonat irodai mardumi Darvozro shikastan natavonist. Onho ba muqobili istilogaron mardonavor changida, avval yak dastai nachandon kalon va bad kushuni yakunimhazoraro bo sardorii Hudoynazar dodkhoh torumor namudand. Dar in chang Hudoynazar dodkhoh va chande az sarkardahoi u yarador shudand. Qismi ziyodi askaroni firistodai amir nobud gardidand.
Mukovimati kahramononai mardumi Darvoz hamai nohiyahoi az tarafi amorati Bukhoro istiloshudai CHanubu SHarqii Osiyoi Miyonaro ba chunbish ovard. Amir Muzaffar bo maqsadi peshgiri namudani shurishhoi umumi favran dar ibtidoi soli 1878 ba in mahalho askaroni ziyod firistoda, khudi amir shakhsan ba on sardori mekard. In quvvai askari dar navoihoi Kulob, Balchuvon va Qarotegin choy girifta, yak dastai sershumor ba qalai Garm firistoda shud, to ki bo rasidani bahor va az barf toza shudani agbaho ba Darvoz hamla namoyad.
Baroi istilo namudani Darvoz az amorat bo sardorii Mullodavlatdodkhoh quvvai ziyodi harbi firistoda shud, ki on ba quvvahoi Hudoynazar – dodkhoh muttahid karda shud. Bahori soli 1879 huchum ba Darvoz sar shud.
Hudoynazar -dodkhoo az rui naqsha amal namuda, mudofiakunandagoni Darvozro ba aqibnishini machbur sokht va qalai khele mustahkami Kaftarkhonaro ba muhosira girift. Bukhoriho dar changhoi sakht talafoti ziyode doda, nihoyat Kaftarkhonaro ishgol namudand va pas az on ba qariyai asosii Darvoz Qalai – khumb va vodii Vanch, ravona shuda, on choyhoro ham zabt namudand. Muqobiliyati darvozihoro barham zada, mirigarii Darvozro shikast doda, muborizai asorat nopisandonai mardumi in diyor bo hamin qat nagardid. Ba sarlashkaron va sarbozoni amir baroi furu nishondani muqovimati sokinoni baze mahallahoi Darvoz boz chiddu chahd va zahmatu ranchi ziyode lozim shud.
Ba Hudoynazar – dodkhoh muyassar nagardid, ki rohbaroni voqeahoi Darvoz pisaron va barodaroni Sirochiddinro dastgir namoyand. Onho bo hamrohii nazdikonashon, ki qarib 100 nafarro tashkil medodand, ba vositai SHnon ba vodi Fargona ba Uch-Kurgon gurekhtand.
Ba hamai in nigoh nakarda, aholii vodi Vanch, ba muqobili istilogaron bebokona muboriza meburdand. Onho dar qalai dastnorasi Roshorv ba kamin nishasta, ba dushman zarbahoi sakht merasonidand. Faqat, pas az on ki ozuqa va muhimoti qalanishinon ba okhir rasid va khiyonati sarkardahoi feodali ba taslimshavi qaror dodand. Roshorv darvozai khudro ba bukhoriho boz kard. Aksari changovaronu muhofizatchiyoni kukhiston ba taslim sar nafarovarda, bo rokhdoi ba sokhili chapi daryoi Panch, ba Afniston guzashtand. Sarbozoni amir ham bo niyati dastgir kardani onho ba on sui daryo guzashta dar kanori chanubii on mavqe giriftand. Ba in sabab on mahalhoe, ki sarbozoni amir dar on sui daryo qaror girifta budand, «Darvozi pasi Panch» nomida shud.
«Hukumati amiri muqovimati darvozihoro tamoman bartaraf karda, zaminhoi onhoro ba kalamravi khud davrovard va Rakhmonbekkulro hokim tain kard. Tabiati ozodikhokhi va istikloltalabi aholii mahalliro ba etibor girifta, dar ikhtiyori hokim dastai sershumori sarbozon, ki shumorai onho ba 1300-1500 merasid guzoshta meshud». (Iskandarov B.I. Vostochnaya Bukhara i Pamir v period prisoedineniya Sredney Azii k Rossii. – S. 174).
In sarzamini ishgolkardai amorat, ki aknun nomi «Bukhoroi SHarqi»-ro girift, dar davomi changhoi istilokorona chunon zarar did, ki to der goh ba khud omada natavonist.
CHunin manzarai khuznangezro dar bisyor shakhru dehaho didan mumkin bud. SHakhru dehahoe, ki badi changu chidolho solim monda budand va usuli falokatbori idorai khukumati feodalii amorati Bukhoro ba tanazzul ru ovarda, hamrokhi sokinonash kurboni hamlahoi kharobkoronai hokimoni kharisu vichdonfurush va torochgarihoi amaldoronu chamkunandagoni khiroch, gardidand.
Badi istiloi nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikiston tamomi vazninii sokhti davlatdorii kuhnai amorat ba dushi mardumi qashshoku kambaali kukhistoni Qaroteginu Darvoz, umuman Bukhoroi SHarki aftid.
Hulosa, Bukhoroi SHarqi az chihati omodagi ba muqovimat, vakhdat va tajkhizoti moddi hanuz ba darachai lozima kuvvat nakarda budand. Feodalonu namoyandagoni tabaqai boloi boshad, misli odati hameshagii khud, baroi nigoh doshtani mavqei imtiyoznokashon dar ayni sakhtii muboriza ba tarafi istilogaron guzashta, ba kori umum khiyonat mekardand. Garazhoi sinfii onho nisbat ba ehsosoti milliyu vatandustiashon kavitar bud. Hukumatdoroni amir in zaifii bekhoro istifoda burda, onhoro ba tarafi khud moil sokhtand. Hamchunin tarafdori va dastgirie, ki amorati Bukhoro az imperiyai Rossiya medid, dar barobari istilokorikhoi on, az ahamiyat kholi nabud.

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