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TASIRI INSILOBI FEVRALI BA AMORATI BUHORO

Qismi ziyodi khalki tochik dar kalamravi amorati Bukhoro zindagi mekard va az hodisahoi inkilobii soli 1917 dar kanor mond. Amiri Bukhoro dar tellegrammai khud ba general- gubernator ba munosibati «Hushi ba khushi va ba tariki osoishta ba sokhti nav guzashtani Turkiston mamnuniyati samimi»-i khudro bayon namud. Agenti siyosi imperatori dar Bukhoro bo qarori khukumati muvavdati rezidentii Rossiya nomida meshud. Dar khudi amorati Bukhoro qarib yagon digargunii chuzi ba amal naomad. Ammo dar mahalhoi rusnishin vaziyat tezu tund gasht.
Hanuz, 8-umi marti soli 1917 korgaroni rokhi ohani stansiyai Kogon namoishi shashkhazornafara tashkil dodand. Mekhnatkashon yaroku aslihai politseyhoro kashida girifta, mahbusoni siyosiro ozod kardand.
Dar shakhrhoi Bukhoroi nav (Kogon), CHorchu, Tirmiz, Qarshi Sovethoi deputatkhoi korgaronu soldatho tashkil shudand.
16 aprel ba etirozi partiyai murosogar nigoh nakarda, Sovetho ba namoyandai Hukumati muvavdati-rezident Miller nobovari elon kard va dar okhiri aprel qaror barovardand, ki az boloi faoliyati Rezident nazorat chori karda shavad. Dar yak vakt safkhokhi Sovetho az sozishkoron toza karda shudand.
Amiri Bukhoro mokhiyati Hukumati muvavdatiro fhmida, kadre orom gasht. 10 marti soli 1917 amiri Bukhoro etirof namud, ki sozishnomai soli 1868 bayni Rossiya va Bukhoro minbad ham rioya karda shuda, Bukhoro dar zeri protektorati Rossiya khohad mond.
Bo maslihati Rezident 18-mart amir loihai islohotro kor karda baromad. «Manifest-i amir mukhimtarin masalahoi siyosi va iqtisodiro meboist dar bar megirift. Az chumla, idorakunii mamlakat dar asosi intikhobi, taravdiyoti sanoati, chori kardani adolati ichtimoi, ba tartib darovardani andozho, kushodani matbaa va masalahoi digar dar «Manifest» meboist khalli khudro meyoft. Ruzi 8 aprel bakhshida ba elon kardani «islohot» chadidon va guruhhoi digar namoish tashkil namuda, ba amir minnatdorii khudro bayon kardand. Dar asli kor chadidho dar Bukhoro baroi guzaronidani yagon khel islohoti asosi hargiz namekushidand. Onho ba amir talaboti qati peshnihod nakardand va tarafdori sokhti idorakunii amiri budand. Faqat kushish mekardand, ki bo yorii hukumati muvavdati dar sistemai idorakunii baze islohotho darovarda, ishtiroki namoyandagoni khudro dar idorakuni tamin namoyand. Ba in maqsad namoish tashkil kardand. Vale amir, ki az har guna chamomadu namoishho dar tarsu vahm bud, bo yorii sarbozon in namoishro pahsh namuda, az bahri ichroi hamai vadahoi barduruash guzasht. Hamin tavr manifest doir ba «islohot» 14 aprel bekor karda shud. Bad az namoish khuchumi kuvvahoi irtichoi bar ziddi hama guna amaliyothoi ozodikhohi purzur gardid. Mahbaskhonahoyu kanakhonahoi amorat pur az mahbuson shudand. Unsurhoi demokrati baroi yori ba komiteti ichroiyai SHuroi deputathoi korgaronu soldathoi Kogon murochiat kardand. SHuro ba amir maktub firistoda takid kard, ki in betartibihoro bas kunad. Bad baroi ozod kardani mahbuson bo rozigii rezident Komitet az Samarqand ba Bukhoro kushun firistod. Barobari ba shahr daromadani askaron mahbuson az bandikhonaho ozod shudand.
Dar rohi guzaronidani islohot guruhi chadidon bo rohbarii Munzim va sozmoni chavonbukhoriyon zeri rohbarii Fayzullo Huchaev va Abdurraufi Fitrat sayu kushish namudand. Dar ibtidoi soli 1917 in du gurukh ba firkai yagonai chavonbukhoriyon mutakhid shudand, ki raisi on Munzim intikhob gardid.
Ba hayati rohbariyati on Abdurraufi Fitrat, Fayzullo Huchaev, Akhmadchon Hamdi, Usmon Hochaev va digaron shomil budand. Firqa ba vositai namoyandai Rossiya dar Bukhoro Miller ba amir dar borai guzaronidani islohot tasir rasonidani bud. Ruzi 7-apreli soli 1917 chalasa dar borai guzaronidani islhot farmoni amirro khondand. Muvofiki on amir baroi chori namudani tartibu nizom, barham dodani raftorhoi khudsarona, islohoti qozihona va andozho, guzaronidani intikhobot va tashkili machlis, chori namudani hisobu kitobi kharchu madokhili mamlakat, ozodii matbuot va kushodani chopkhonahoro vada kard. Vale az in ikdomi garaznoki amir hamai mardum ogoh gardidand.
Farmonro dar navbati avval chavonbukhoriyon garmu chushon kabul kardand. Ruzi digar hazorho nafar bo hissi kanoatmandi bo parchamu shiorho ba namoishi shukrona baromadand. Vale amaldoron va ruhoniyoni irtichoi bar ziddi islohot baromada ba amir fishor ovardand.
Qori Ibod (yake az ruhoniyon ) dar khonahoi Devonbegi va rohbaroni digari aksulinkilobi dar choi digar ba
gardanashon futa andokhta bo nidohoi zerin khalkro meshuronidand: «Vo shariato, vo dino, vo Kuron, ey
musulmonkho din az dast raft, shariat tamom shud, aknun rui zanhoyatonro mekushoyand, ba nomusi zanhoyaton tachovuz mekunand, farzandhoyatonro dar maktabi kofiri
mekhononand. Ey ahli imon, baroi hifzi din, imon va shariat ayrat kuned, ba kazo hozir shaved! CHadidho bayrok bardoshta baromadand. CHanobi oliro bekor mekunand!» (Holiqzoda A. Tarikhi siyosi.- S.36).
Badi chande dar khonahoi Devonbegi izdikhomi kalone cham shuda, bo shuru gavgo ba sui qasri podshoh ravon shudand. Onho bozornishinhoro machbur kardand, ki dukonhoro basta ba izdikhom hamroh shavand. Balvogaron ba qarorgohi amir rafta az amaldoroni u suporishi zaruri girifta ba nazdi Qushbegi raftand, habsu qatli chadidonro talab kardand.
Hudi hamon shab dar borai bekor kardani farmon amir amr dod. Dar Bukhoro ruzhoi tira sar shudand. Har shakhsero, ki dar borai ba chadidon hamroh gumonbar meshud, chazo medodand. Ustod S.Ayniro ham 75 darra zada ba obkhona partoftand. YAk qismi islohotparaston gurekhta choni khudro khalos kardand. Sadho nafar ba qatl rasonda shudand. Az chumla barobari S.Ayni Sirochiddin ham.
Hamin tavr yakumin kushishi dar Bukhoro islohot ba vuchud ovardan ba nokomi anchom yoft. Azoyoni boqimondai sozmoni chavonbukhoriyon dar khorichi Bukhoro amaliyoti khudro davom dodand. Bahsu munozirahoi tuloni bo on ovarda rasond, ki hayati rohbariyati on tagyirot, sokhtori tashkilii on takmil doda shud va tiramohi soli 1917 barnomai toza khudro tahiya namud.
In barnoma nisbati sokhti amiri guzasht kardanro dar nazar doshta, islohothoi siyosiyu ichtisodi va ichtimoiro dar takhti nazorati amir dar nazar dosht.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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