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JAMIYATI BAYNALHALQII SHUURI KRISHNA

Asosguzori jamiyati SHuuri Krishna ( Hare Krishna) SHri SHrimad Abkhay CHaran De(1896-1977), ki nomi iftikhorii mazhabii Bkhaktivedanta Svama Prabkhupadaro dorad dar soli 1896 dar shahri Kalkuttai Hinduston ba dunyo omadaast. Muloqoti avvalini u bo piri ruhoniash SHril Bkhaktisiddkhantkha Sarasvati Gasvami soli 1922 buda va bo tavsiyai u ba intishori adabiyoti vedoi ba zaboni anglisi shuru kardaast. Soli1933 u ba tariqati Gadiyya Vayshnava vorid gardida, nomi Prabkhupadaro megirad. Bad az se sol (1936) pirash guru Abkhaya , Bkhaktisiddkhanta Sarasvati az jahon chashm pushid va uro jonishini khud tain kard. Soli 1944 u nashri majallae bo nomi « Aqab ba sui Hudo», yak bor dar du hafta shuru kard. Dar holi hozir nashri in majalla ba ziyoda az 33 zabon idoma dorad. Avvalin asari u «Bkhagavad-gita»- on chunon ki hast»- «SHrimad-Bkhavagitam», meboshad, ki dar on zimni sharhu tafsiri «Bkhagava-gita» asosi talimoti mazhabii khudro bayon kardaast.

SHri SHrimad Abkhay CHaranIn ast, ki «Bkhagava-gita» va «SHrimad-Bkhavagitam» kitobhoi muqaddasi in jamiyat ba shumor meravad. Dar soli 1947 CHamiyati Gaudiya-vayshnav ba SHrile Prabkhupada ba nomi iftikhorii «Bkhaktivedanta» musharraf gardonida, az in tariq, ilmu vafodorii uro ba Hudo etirof mekunad. Soli 1950 u dar sinni 54 solagi az hayoti oilavi dast kashida, purra ba tarzi zindagi- silki vanaprastkhi vorid gardid, to tamomi vaqti khudro ba ilmu kori ejodi bakhshad. Pas az in u ba shahri muqaddasi Vrindavana kuchida, dar yak_ mabadi asri miyonagii Radkhi- Damodara darveshona zindagi ikhtiyor mekunad. U vaqti khudro purra ba navishtani shohasari khud tarjumai bisyorjilda va tafsiri « SHrimad Bkhagavatam» ( «Bkhagavati Purani») mebakhshad.

Soli 1965 SHrila Prabkhupada bo kishtii bori ba Nyu York meoyad. Hangomi vurud ba in shahr u hej sarmoyae baroi zindagi nadosht va pas az yak soli mushkili soli 1966 dar mohi iyul Jamiyati baynalmilalii shuuri Krishnaro tasis namud. In Jamiyat, ki u poya guzoshtu rahbari kard, hangomi margi u 14 Noyabri sol 1977 to konfederasiyai jahoni va doroi ziyoda az sad ashramho, maktabho, mabadho, donishgoho va jamiyathoi kishovazi bud.[1]

Talimoti in mazhab dar zaminai talimoti hinduiya tashakkul yoftaast. CHunon ki malum ast « Bhagava- gita» yak qismi Makhabkharata meboshad, ki talimoti krishnaitho bar asosi tafsiri on bunyod shudaast. Jamiyati krishna bo on farq mekunad, ki vujudi Hudoi yagonaro etirof dorad. Haqiqati oli Hudoi YAgonai Mutaol Parvardigor SHri Krishna ast, ki az se jihat donista meshavad: Brahma ( ruhi be huviyati qobili nufuz ba hama); Paramatma ( Joni jahoni oli, ki dar qalbi har yak mavjudi zinda va har zarrai ofarida hast) va Bkhagavan ( Huviyati Olii Hudo), ki sarchashmai Paramatna va Brahmana meboshad. Hamin tavr, Krishna, Brahman va Paramatma se nomi Hudoi yagona ast.

Dar «Bagavad-gita» imkoni shinokhtani panj haqiqati asosi doda shudaast. Pesh az hama shinokhti Hudo va Jiva holati voqeii makhluqoti zinda. Ishvara, one, ki ba hama hokimiyat mekunad va olami zinda-jivaro tahti nazorat dorad. Makhluqoti zinda hama zeri nazoratand, haddi aqal dar hayoti shartiashon ozod nestand. Hamin tavr dar «Bagavad-gita» mo bo ishvari hokimi oli va jivaho, mavjudoti zindai idorashavanda saru kor dorem. Gayr az in, dar on prakriti ( tabiati moddi), kalazamoni abadii ( vujudi hamai kayhon, yo zuhuri tabiati moddi) va karma (faoliyat) muhokima shudaand. Zuhuroti kayhoni iborat az faoliyathoi gunogunand, hamchunin hamai mavjudoti zinda. Az «Bahagavad-gita» mo darmeyobem, ki Hudo hast, mavjudoti zinda hast, tabiati moddi- parakriti hast, zuhuroti kayhoni hast va chi guna on bo zamon idora meshavad va kadom navi faoliyatro mavjudoti zinda dorand.[2]

Mavjudoti zinda dar munosibat ba Hudoi Taolo holati jabrro dorand va hej amale be ogahi va nazorati vay ba vuqu namepayvandad. Dar navbati khud chun dar tasavvufi islomi jiva- olami asgar, hissae judonashavandae az khudi Hudoi Taolo meboshad. Gufta shuda, chunon ki yak qita tillo ham tillost va qatrai obe az uqyonus niz shur ast, hamin tavr mo, mavjudoti zinda, chun qismati judoinopaziri hokimi oli, ishvari, yo Bkhagavana, Parvardigor SHri Krishna doroi hama sifoti Hudoi Taolo meboshem, tanho ba nisbati asgar-khele kam. [3]

Muvofiqi in talimot inson misli digar mavjudoti zinda chun namunae az olami asgar ham doroi shuur, chun shuuri Hudo, ham doroi khohishi hokimiyat va ham doroi hissi lazzat meboshad va har maylu khohish va kore dar in jodaho mekunad, boyad mahzi tamini hamin niyozhoi Parvardigor boshad, ki U doroi mazhari olii in sifothost. Inson misli azoi badan va yo juziyoti yak moshin dar surati tamini Asli Kull az in niyozmandiho va sifatho bahramand shuda metavonad. Inson tanho az hamin tariq ba qurbati koshonai abadii movarouttabii Oli- sanatana- dkharma musharraf megardad. Payvastan ba sanatana-dkharma payvastan ba asli abadii khud ast.

Baroi rahoi dodan az oloishhoi in hayot va bozgardonidani mavjudoti zinda ba asli khudashon Hudovand khudash ba zamin mefaroyad va az tanosukhi gunogun meguzarad va yo namoyandagoni khud ancharhoro mefirstad. Parvardigor nisbat ba mavjudoti zinda khele mehrubon ast, Vay onhoro dust dorad, chunki onho farzandoni Uyand. Muvofiqi sunnathoi vedoi payravoni Krishna etiqod dorand, ki ruh metavonad 8 400000 qolabi navi hayot ivaz kunad, yane pas az margi har qolabi peshina ba khud muvofiqi karma qolabi nav girad yo ba qolabi nav intiqol yobad. In tanosukh muvofiqi qonuni karma metavonad beokhir boshad. Vale hangome, ki ruh dar kolbudi inson jo meshavad, vay imkoni vorastan az in zanjir yo girdobi tanosukh, rahoi az intiqoli doimi az kolbude ba kolbude paydo mekunad va metavonad ba asli avvalai khud, yane bo Parvardigor Krishna bipayvandad. Hulosai asli talimoti SHri- Krishna chunin ast.

Ibodat va shariati krishnaparaston , ki asosi onro bkhakta-yoga tashkil mekunad, ba on ravona karda shudaast, ki az tariqi purra ba olami manaviyu ruhoni furu rafta, bo Hudo robitai khudro barqaror kunad, ishqi ilohiro, ki az ogoz ba har yak mavjudi zinda khos bud, dar khud parvarad.

YAke az usulhoi muhimmi ibodati amalii krishnagaroyon, zukhdu porsoi, dast kashidan az moddiyot va molu sarvat va ba haddi aqal rasondani on ast. Zuhdu qanoat dar dast kashidan az nemathoi moddii hayoti dunyavi va khayr kardani on nematho dar rohi Hudo ba Jamiyati SHuuri Krishna meboshad. Dar in mazhab mahdudiyatho va muharramoti khuroki naqshi muhim dorad. Ba « sodiqon»-onhoe, ki hayoti khudro ba khizmati ruhoni bakhshidaand khurdani gusht, mohi, tukhm man shudaast. Hamchunin payravoni in mazhab ba khud istifoda az mukhaddarot, on chizhoe, ki ba ehsos meorad, hatto qahva, choy va tamokuro harom kardaand. Ravobiti jinsii nomashru ba juz baroi farzand man ast. Onho ba tahoratu pokizagii badan ahamiyati ziyod medihand. Ibodat dar mabad niz az subh soati 4 to shab soati 21 barguzor megardad. Ahmiyati ziyod ba meditatsiya va zikr (mantr– poksozii aql) az tariqi khondani nomhoi muqaddasi Hudo « Hare Krishna, Krishna Harn,Hare, Hare Rama, Rama Hare, Hare Rama Rama, Rama Hare,Hare» medihand. In duoro payravoni Krishna dar tuli ruz boyad 1728 ( 16 bor 108 zikri -ba miqdori tasbeh-japai onho )[4] bor zikr kunand. Tarjumai on chunin ast: «Ey Hudoi hamajazzob va ey Hudoi hamashodgar, ey nerui Ilohi biguzor sodiqona ba Tu adoi khizmat kunam». Meditatsiya infirodi(-jana) va dastajami (kirtana) dar mabad meshavad. Payravoni in mazhab ba hama kori khud khususiyati dini medihand.

Markazi mazhabiyu farhangii payravoni Krishna mabad-ibodatgohi onhost. Payravoni Jamiyati baynalkhalqii SHuuri Krishna dar solhoi bad az suquti Davlati shuravi dar jumhurihoi Osiyoi Markazi, alalkhusus dar Qazoqiston va Qirgiziston ziyod shudaand. Inchunin dar kishvarhoi SNG jamiyatu firqaho va mazhabhoi digari dar zaminai hinduiya ba vujud omada, chun: Vayshnavi, Meditatsiyai Transtsendentali -asosguzori on Makhesh Barasad Varna az s.1956 khudro hakimi buzurg-Makharishi elon karda, Markazi SHri CHinmoy– yake az raviyahoi navi hinduiya bo nomi asosguzori on-SHri CHinmoy (tav. 1931-az bangolai Hinduston) maruf gashta, Markazi Satya San -muassisi on Avatar Satya Sai Baba (tav.s.1926, Hinduston) faoliyat dorand.

[1]  Mufas. nig. Zamimai muallif dar SHri SHrimad A.CH. Bkhaktivedanta Svami Prabkhupada. Bhagavad- Gita: kak ona est. IZD. «Bkhaktivedanta Buk Trast», 1986 g.- S.815-816., va Kanitkar V.P. (Hemant) ,Koul U. Ouen. Induizm/ Tar. Az angl. E. Bogdanovoy.- M.: FAIR-PRESS, 1999.-S.289-293.

[2]   . Bhagavad- Gita: kak ona est. Muqaddima. -S.21.

[3]   Hamon jo.- S.22.

[4]  In mantri mukhtasarshuda baroi Garb ast dar Hinduston onro 64 bor dar ruz boyad zikr kunand.

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