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DINU BOVARIHOI MISRIYONI QADIM

Mamlakati Misr  dar qismati shimolu sharqii Afriqo, dar kanori Bahri Miyonazamin va Bahri Surkh, dar du tarafi rudkhonai buzurgi Nil joygir ast. Dar qadim in kishvarro khudi mardumi on Kemit (ketP), yane «zamini siyoh» menomidand, in nom bo sababi on bud, ki har sol bar asari obkhezi dar sarosari kanori rudkhonai Nil loyqai siyohrange dar zaminhoi kisht boqi memond.

Kishvari Misr yake az qadimtarin gahvorai tamadduni jahonist. Paydoish va peshrafti tamaddun dar in sarzamin bo rushdi farhang: din, ilmu sanat, khatu adabiyot, shahrsozi, memori va tashkiloti siyosi vobasta bud. Zarurati kishtu ziroat- dehqoni, muayyan kardani mavsimi obkhezi va memori va taqvim baroi ijroi marosimhoi mazhabi ba paydoishi ilmhoi hayatu sitorashinosi, riyoziyotu handasa, fizik va g-ra musoidat va kumak kardand. Hanuz dar hazorai seyumi t.m. dar Misr ham khatti piktografi va ham heroglifii Misri ba vujud omada bud. Dar asri 8 t.m. boz yak khatti digar bo nomi khatti demotik ba vujud meoyad.

Taqriban hududi 4000 to 3000 sol pesh az melod dar sohili rudi Nil avval dehaho va rustoho ba yak markaz, ki «num» nomida meshudand, muttahid shudand. Dar natija du markaz, du saltanat, dar boloobi rudi Nil va dar poyonob Nil tashakkul meyoband. Dar hududi soli 2900 t.m. podshoh Menes in harduro tahti saltanati khud medarorad va avvalin sokhtori davlatii markaziyatyoftai Misr va sulolai firavniyonro poyaguzori mekunad. Pas az in 31 sulolai firavni dar in sarzamin hokimiyat kardaand. Davrahoi hukumati firavnhoi Misr iboratand: saltanati qadim (ashoiHHH- XXII t.m.);

saltanati miyona (asrhoi HHP-HHIt.m.); saltanati nav (asrhoi HUI-VIII t.m.) ;

saltanati navtarin (asrhoi VIII- III t.m.)

Etiqodoti misriyon, az navi etiqodoti bisyorkhudoi (politeisti) budaast. Dar ibtido misriyon khudohoero, ki az davrai totemparasti ba meros monda bud, meparastidand. Har yak num(n.)ro khudoi khose, az navi janvaron nigohboni mekardaast. Masalan dar n.-hoi Abidus va Tiniis shagolro, dar n. Fayum timsoh, dar n.Tebes khudoi Omun ba surati quchqor meparastidand. SHahri Memfisro du khudoi muhofiz budaast, yake Sekhmet ba surati modasher va digare Aris ba surati govi nar (barzagov). Dar shahri Dandera mardum khudoi Hoturro, ki shakli modagovro doshtaast, meparastidand. Dar shahri Edfu shahboz ba nomi Behudet yo khurus mavridi ibodati mardum buda. Ba hamin qiyos dar nuqotu nohiyahoi digar jonvaroni digar az qabili maymun, aspi obi, laklak, mush, mori afi, gurba, qurboqqa va jonvaronu hayvonoti digar mavridi parastish va etiqod budaand.

Masalan, dar tasavvuroti onho khudoi Knummu- kholiqi tamomi mavjudot shakle murakkab az badani inson va sari quchqor dosht va bo dasthoi insoni charkhi ofarinishro ba harakat meovarad; Anubis hofizi qabrho va murdagonro dar shakli paykari inson va sare az shagol tasvir va tasavvur mekardand.

Umuman, muvofiqi yake az usturahoi misri ogozi hasti va paydoishi khudoyon ba nahvi zerin ast.

…. Hama joro obi tirrae faro girifta bud, az bayni on hatto nuri khirae ham guzashta nametavonist, chize ham nabud, ki ba on nur afkanad.

Farmonravoi in haraju maraji beokhir Nun- padari hamai khudoyon bud. Nihoyat ba dili u in holati chize nadidan , chize nashunidan va khomushi zad va u dar umqi obho sangi muqaddasi Benbenro ofarid. On ohistaohista az ob baland shud, qullai on chahor danda bud, dar on shabi tor dar qullai on guli nilufar ruyid. Vaqte ki on shukuft, az on khurshedi tobon-Ra tavallud shud va ba rui zamin ba sangi tobandai Benben nur afkand. Ra zaminro nazzora kard va az sari u odamon va hama mahluqi zinda ba vujud omadand. Vay dahoni khudro kushod va az laboni u khudoyon zuhur kardand.

CHunin ast usturai misri dar borai paydoishi olam va in sangi mujizaoso Benben dar shakli sutune dar boloi on nilufar, ki badan unsuri muhimmi memorihoi misri gardid.

Dar jarayoni tahavvuli ijtimoiyu siyosi, dar natijai bo ham nazdikshavii nohiyaho az tariqi jangho va gayra, khudoyoni buzurgtare az tarkibyobii yakchand khudoyon ba vujud meoyand. Masalan, khudoyoni mashhur Aton Ra yo Patrakh-Sukar va yo Osiris az tarkibi du khudo yo se khudo ba vujud omadaast.

Dar boramon

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