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Ismoiliya chist?

Ismoiliya – yake az buzurgtarin firkai shia meboshad, ki dar asri VIII m. ba vuchud omada, dar tarikhi mamoliki SHarki Nazdik, SHimoli Afrio, Eronu Osiyoi Miyona nakshi muassire guzoshtaast. Sababi paydoishi in firkaro sarchashmakho chunin bayon kardaand. Imomi shashumi shiayon imom Jafari Sodiq  guyo farzandi khud Ismoilro, ki vorisi u dar imomat bud, az in khukuk makhrum va az martabai imomi mazul va ba choi u farzandi digarash Muso al-Kozimro chonishini khud tayin mekunad. Sababi chunin tasmim giriftani imom Jafari Sodiq ba kavle, ba maykhorh mayli ziyod doshtani Ismoil va yo az rui akhbori digar, ki ba vokeiyat nazdiktar ast, pesh az padarash vafot kardani u budaast.\ 39:154 va 26:15\ Vale payravonash in tasmimi imom Jafari Sodikro etirof nakardand va ba khar surat pas az in khodisa niz onkho ba Ismoil vafodor mondand.

ismoilihoDuktur Hasan Ibrokhim Hasan muallifi ” Tarikhi siyosii, dini, madani va ichtimoii islom” bo istinod ba Hasan an- Navbakhti meguyad, ki payravoni Ismoil margi uro pesh az padarash inkor mekunand va uro joibgardida meshumorand va bovari dorand, ki to okhirzamon zinda khokhad mond. \ 39:154\ Dar voke, firkai ismoiliya bo kadom sababu bakhonae az shiai duvozdakhimoma chudo nashuda boshad, dar amal on zaminai ideologii kharakati vasei siyosii mukholif ba khilofati abbosiyon bud, ki badtar ba nakhzati domanadori k a r m a t i ya tabdil yoft. In shurishi julomon va benavoyoni shakhrh va gurukhi vasei tabaKoti miyona bud, ki dar IroKu Huziston solkhoi 868-883 ba vuKu payvast. On dar avval az tarafi Abdullo ibni Maymun va badan Hamdon Qarmat rokhbarh karda meshavad.\ Dar mavridi zaminakhoi iitimoiyu siyosii paydoishi in firKa nig.\ 26: 7-13 va 27: 6– 15\

Hulosa, khar chand Ismoil soli 760, yane pani sol Kabl az padarash vafot kard, vale payravoni u boz vafodor mondand va guftand, ki vay vafot nayofta, balki az nazarkho joib gashtaast va bori digar monandi Makhdii muntazir ba olam boz khokhad gasht. In ba on vo doshta bud, ki khatto imom Jafari SodiK iasadi murdai Ismoilro dar yake az masiidkhoi Madina ba marazi nazari omma guzorad. Baze ismoiliyon dar purshurii khud on qadar ifrot kardand, ki guftand Ismoil taiassumi zoti ilokhist.

Az likhozi nazarh asli ikhtilofi ismoiliya va yaKinan daleli qotei onho bar alaykhi shiayoni isnoasharh ioiz nashumoridani intisobi imomat az barodar ba barodar pas az Hasan va Husayn ibn Alh meboshad. Onkho intisobi Musoi Kozimro ba imomat ba ioi pisari Ismoil Mukhammad vayron kardani sharoiti imomat meshumorand. Ismoiliyonro khaftimomiya (khaft tan) niz menomand chun imomati onkho bo imomi khaftum, ki pisari Ismoil Mukhammad ast khotima meyobad. Ismoiliyonro botinh niz mekhonand, chun onkho aKida dorand, ki “khar zokhire botin va khar oyate tavil dorad”. Jayr az in ismoiliyonro, chunonki SHahristoni takid karda , dar IroK q a r m at i ya va m a z d a k i ya, dar Huroson t a t i l i ya va m u l kh i d i ya niz menomidaand. Vale khudashon mo ismoiliya meguyand.\12:168\

Ismoiliya ba tadrii az yak firKai diniyu siyosh ba yak iarayon yo maktabi ilokhiyotiyu falsafh tabdil meyobad. Dar tashakkuli falsafai ismoiliya tasiri joyakhoi Aflotun (asri 1U pesh a.m.) va navaflotunh (asri 111 m.) az tariKi nasroniya va Arastu dar falsafai tabiiyot (naturfilosofiya) mushokhida karda meshavad. MuvofiKi talimoti ismoiliya mabdai yagonai khavodisi mutaaddidi olam Hudo- ” al-Jaybut-Taolo” meboshad. Vay khei guna sifat (atribut) nadorad va baroi bashar nomuayyan va shinokhtanashavanda ast. Az in ru ba u ibodat kardan lozim nest. Dar in mavrid chunon ki mebinem, ismoiliya na tankho bo islomi rasmh, balki bo navaflotuniyon va tasavvuf ikhtilof dorad, chunki inkho imkoni robitai shakhsh- infirodiro bo Hudo etirof mekunand va ba on bovarh dorand vale ismoiliya imkoni kharguna shinokhtro rad mekunad. MuvofiKi nazariyai ismoiliya Hudo Zoti Kul dar kholati oromh (yo sukut)-i abadist. Vay, chunon ki dinkhoi yakhudiya, nasroniya va islom talim medikhand, kholiKu ofaridgori olam nest.

Hudo– Zoti Kull bo irodai azalii khud Javhar( substansya)-i eiodgar= A K- l i K u l l ro iudo mekunad. In avvalin suduri -Hudost. AKli Kull doroi khamai sifotest, ki musalmonon ba Alloh nisbat medihand va sifati asosii vay ilm ast. Ibodatro boyad ba u kard. Vay doroi nomkhoi ziyod ast. AKli Kull zinai poyonii sudur- Nafsi Kullro eiod kard. Vay noKis ast va sifati asosii vay hayot ast. Nafsi Kull bo ehsosi noKisii khud mayl ba kamol mekunad va az khud suduri tozae mekunad va Moddai Avval=Hayuloro iudo mekunad. Az Hayulo Zamin, sayyorakho, sitoraho, makhluqoti zinda ba vuiud meoyand. Paydoishi Inson az mayli Nafsi Kull ba kamol vobasta ast.

Hamin tavr ismoiliya khaft zinai sudur (emanasiya): Zoti Kull, AKli Kull, Nafsi Kull, Hayulo, Makon, Zamon, va Insoni Kommilro muayyan kardaast. Dar nazariyai ismoiliya bayni AKli Kull va Bashar yo bayni olami akbar va olami asgar tanosub musovist. YAne inikosi AKli Kull dar iakhoni mahsus Insoni Komil meboshad. Hakim Nosiri Husrav farmuda: ” Har chi dar olami khissh maviud ast, on asare ast, az on chi dar olami Uvlo \olami akbar\ maviud ast.” \ 9:87\

Dar talimoti ismoiliya shumorai khaft maKomi khose dorad. Az iumla ba jayr az khaft zinai sudur, khaft davri nubuvvatro muKarrar kardaand. Dar in mavrid niz Hakim Nosiri Husrav farmuda: “Ham chunon ki bar osmoni dunyo khaft nur mashkhur ast ( SHamsu .1amaru Zukhaylu Mushtariyu Mirrikhu Zukhra va Atorud ) dar osmoni din niz khaft nur mashkhur ast: Odamu Nukh va Ibrokhimu Muso va Isovu Mukhammad” \9:87\ Davri khaftum bo zukhuri payjambari buzurg al- yoyim (pisari Ismoil Mukhammad) aniom meyobad.

Aqli Kull dar olami zokhir bar payjambaron, ki n o t i K nomida shudaand inikos meyobad va khar notiK dar nazdi khud yovare dorad, ki guftakhoi uro ba mardum bo rokhi tavil mefakhmonad. Vayro chun khud az peshi khud chize nameguyad s o m i t (khomush) menomand. Masalan, Muso notiK bud, barodarash Horun dar nazdi u somit, Esoi Masekh notiK bud va Butrus (Pyotr) dar nazdi u somit va Mukhammad notiK vaAlh dar nazdi u somit bud. Dar fosilakhoi tanaffuse, ki to paydoishi notiKi badi eiod meshavad Zoti Ilokhh ba imomon hulul mekunad va onkho niz khaft nafarh dar khar davraand.

CHun in kitob junioishi bakhsi vase va khama farogirandai falsafa va talimoti dinii ismoiliyaro nadorad, bo khamin mukhtasare, ki az falsafai ismoiliya bayon shud sukhanro kutokh karda, tankho khaminro khotirnishon kardaniem, ki talimoti falsafiyu dinii ismoiliya khelo pechidavu mushakil ast. Bisyor mukhaKKiKon bar in aKidaand, ki zeri pardai botingaroii ismoiliya afkori ozodfikriyu ilkhodi nikhon ast , ki bo talimotu tasavvuroti dinii sunnati khei umumiyate nadorad.

Dar mavridi tarikhi siyosii ismoiliya niz tadKiKotkho va arzyobikhoi mukhtalif ziyodand. CHunon ki dar avval ishora shud ismoiliya az tarafi yak mardi eronh bo nomi Abdullokh ibni Maymun, ki khudro noibi khoziri imomi joib, yane Mukhammad Ismoil elon karda bud, ba maKsadi siyosh ba kor girifta meshavad. Vay iamiyati makhfie tashkil doda bar on fikr bud, ki khilofati banni abbosro sarnagun karda, khud ba takhti khilofati islom takya zanad. Harchand in naKshai u amalh nashud va khud maibur shud ba shimoli SHom (Suriyai imruz) firor kunad, vale sozmon va aniumankhoi makhfii vay bad az vafotash muvaffaK shudand, ki dar khududi soli 909 m. saltanate dar shimoli AfriKo bo nomi khilofati f o t i- m i ya ba vuiud ovardand, ki chand asr ( az s. 909 to s.1171 ) dar Misr, Tunis va SHom khukmronh kunad. Davlati fotimiya khar oyina yake az buzurgtarin davlati shiai ismoiliya bud.

YAke az firqahoe, ki az tashkiloti sirrii Abdullokh ibni Maymun ba vuiud omad firKai q a r o m a t i ya bud. Peshvoi onkho yake az shogirdoni Abdullo mavsum ba Hamdon Qarmat bud, ki in firKa ba nomi u maruf gardid. Tashkiloti makhfii in firKa dar avokhiri asri 1H melodh dast ba kor shud va muddate khokimiyati mustaKile dar sokhili jarbii Haliii Fors ba vuiud ovard va az YAman to khududi IroK dar takhti saltanati onkho Karor girift. In davlati inKilobh, ki gufta meshavad on baze prinsipkhoi kommunaro doro bud, tavonist istiKloli khudro bo kamoli Kudrat dar barobari khilofati Bajdod khifz kunad. Hatto dar yak khuiumi khud karomatiya shakhri Makkaro dar mavsimi khaii fatkh karda, jorat namudand va sangi siyokhi muKaddasi khonai Kabaro az ioyash kanda bo khud burdand va khamchunin muddati bist sol on sang dar tasarrufi onkho bud to in ki khalifai fotimii Misr, ki Muntasir laKab dosht va u niz az shiai ismoiliya bud az onkho darkhost kard, ki sangi muKaddasro ba ioi khud boz gardonand.

FirKai digare ki az ismoiliya baromada d u r u z i ya meboshad. In firKa dar asri H1 az doirai ismoiliyai fotimh dar payravii Mukhammad ibni Ismoili Darazh ( vaf.1019) yake az tarafdoroni khalifai fotimh al- Hakim (saltanat az 996-1021) ba vuiud omadaast.Baze muarrikhoni din Hamza ibn Aliro asosguzori in firKa meshumorand. Vale payravoni in firKa khudro m u v a kh kh i d menomand. Duruziyon al-Hakimro khamchun imomi khaftum parastish mekunand. Darazh, ki az ismoiliyoni fors bud ( baze uro turk guftaand) ba Qokhira omada, ba tabliji joyai khud mepardozad, vale dar on io dastgirh paydo namekunad va pas az yak vazguie , ki dar masiidi iomei Qokhira iddao mekard , ki dar shakhsiyati khalifa al-Hakim ruhi ilokhh hulul kardaast, mavridi taKib va lanati musalmonon qaror megirad va bo yorii khalifa al-Hakim ba Suriya megurezad. Dar in io joyai in firKa khamchun ideologiyai kharakati ozodikhokhii siyosii mardumi kukhistoni ianubii Lubnon khayrkhokhivu dastgiri paydo mekunad. Payravoni in firKa to imruz niz dar Lubnon va Suriya iqomat dorand.

Asosi aKidavii Duruziyaro Hamza ibni Alh (vaf. bad az 1042 ) nikhoda bud va onro dar asri HU Yamoluddin Tanukhh (1417-1479) takmil namuda ast. Talimoti kosmologii onkho ba ismoiliya nazdikast, dar on faKat pani zinai sudur ast, khar kadom dar yake az peshvoyoni in firKa taiassum yoftaast. Masalan, suduri avvalro AKl ( yo AKli Kull) meshumorand, ki dar Hamza ibni Alh taiassum yofta; suduri duvvum Nafsi Kull ast, ki dar Ismoil ibni Mukhammadi Tamimh muiassam shudaast va j-ra. Tasiri talimoti zardushtiya va masekhiya dar in firKa khelo ravshan ast. On az iumla dar masalai bovarh ba on, ki olam yo khasth munosibati mutaKobilai khayru shar meboshad va khar asli kaykhonh asli digari tazzodro ( chun: aKl- shayton, nafs- nida, nur -zulmat, khikmat- iakhl)- ro dorad va bovarh ba on, ki Hudo metavonad dar shakli insonh zohir shavad khuvaydost. Duruziyon ahkomi shariatro rioya namekunan va doroi zindagii khelo ba khud mahdudi ba rui begonagon basta dorand. Holo payravoni in firKa dar Lubnon, Suriya ,Falastin va Kisman Amriqo zindagh mekunand.

Dar asri H1 firKai digare az ismoliya bo nomi n i z or i ya ba vuiud omad. In firKa inchunin bo nomi kh a sh sh o sh i ya ( yo khud assosiya ) niz maruf ast. Nomi okhirinro in firKa baroi on giriftaast, ki guyo onkho Katli khafiya ( terror)-ro khamchun usuli muboriza bo mukholifon va dushmanoni khud ba kor burda, iirokunandagoni in khukmro khashish medodaand. Asosgzori in firKa Hasan ibni Sabbokhi Himyarh buda, nomi firKa bo nomi an-Nizor- pisari kalonh, valiakhdi imom khalifi fotimiyon al- Mustansir vobasta ast. Badi vafoti khalifa Mustansir fotimiyoni Misr ba du shokha iudo shudand. Ismoiliyoni IroK, SHom, Huroson va Luriston tarafdori imomati pisari kalonii Mustansir- Nizor shudand va imomati pisari khurdii u Mustaliro, ki solkhoi 1090-91 dar natiiai ziddiyatkhoi darborh valiakhd tain shuda bud, inkor kardand. Talimoti nizoriyaro dar Eron doii nomburdai ismoiliya Hasani Sabbokh intishor dod va tarafdoroni ziyode dar YAzd, Kirmon va Tabaristonu Domjon paydo kard. Hulosa badan u dar soli 1090 Kalaero bo nomi Alamut dar kukhistoni Alburzi Eron ba dast ovarda, okhista- okhista yak davlati navismoilie barKaror mekunad, ki on az soli 1090 to soli 1256 davom karda, bo davlati saljuqiyon va mujulkho sakht muboriza kardaast.

Talimoti nizoriya dar aksari mavrid bo talimoti ismoiliya monand ast, ba iuz on, ki nizoriya ba tasavvuf tavaiiukh namuda, baze unsurkhoi onro dar talimoti khud dokhil kardaast. Nizoriya payravoni khudro ba martabakho iudo karda ast. Silsila marotibi nizoriya iborat ast: az imom, doii doiyon (doiyul duot), doii kabir, doi, rafiK, losiK, va fidoh. Du martabai okhirin tankho zokhiri talimoti nizoriyaro medonand va ba martabakhoi boloh tobeand. Se martabai avval onkhoe meboshand, ki khar kadom ba Kadri manzalati khud az botini talimoti nizoriya ogakhh dorand.

Aksari ismoiliyone , ki to imruz omada rasidaand, az shokhai nizoriya meboshand. Onkho dar Suriya, Ummon, baze makhalloti Eron va dar shimoli Afjoniston zindagh mekunand. Dar baze navokhii viloyati Kukhistoni Badakhshon niz payravoni nizoriya va inchunin n o s i r i ya yake az digar shokhai ismoiliya, ki asosguzori on Nosiri Husravi youbodiyonh ba shumor meravad, zindagh mekunand. Bo khamin sukhanro dar borai ismoiliya kutokh namuda, faKat khaminro khotirnishon kardaniem, ki in io mo tankho dar mavridi maruftarin firKakhoi islom va az iumla ismoiliya, malumot dodem omukhtani khamai firKakho, shokhakho va iarayonkhoi mazkhabh, falsafiyu siyosii islom kori alokhidaero taKozo dorad.\ Muf. nig. 38\

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