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PAYDOISHSH JARAYONHOI SIYOSI. TALIMOTI MARKSISTI.

Asri XIX dar tarikhi bashariyat bo ziddiyatho va ikhtilofho va barkhurdhoi ideologi maqomi khosa dorad.
Ziddiyathoi chamiyati tanho khosi karni XIX nestand, dar olami hasti ziddiyathoi noguzir choy dorand. Dar surate, ki az ziddiyatho ba maqsad istifoda burda shavand, metavonand omili peshrafti chomea gardand. Dar holati mukobil chomearo ba kharobkoriho ovarda merasonad.
Dar asri XIX aksariyati mamlakathoi Avrupo bo taravdiyoti sanoati fark mekardand.
Dar naticha chomea toraft beshtar ba tabaqahoi ba ham zid taqsim shud. Sokhiboni vositahoi istehsolot bo istifoda az mekhnati kiroya boyu kudratmand meshudand va korgaroni kiroya, kambaal shuda, dar bayni onho muboriza shiddat megirift. Ziddiyati sinfi baroi tamomi formatsiyahoi chamiyati khos ast. Lekin qarni XIX bo on khosiyat farq mekunad, ki dar muborizai siyosi korgaroni kiroya shirkat kardand. Ittifoki korgaron sabab shud, ki fikru andeshaho oidi barobarii ichtimoi ba amal oyand. Dar naticha dar asri XIX nazariya va talimothoi nav paydo shudand, ki maromu maqsadhoi barobarii ichtimoi va adolatkhokhi chomearo tachassum menamudand. Markazi in talimhoi nav Avrupo bud.
Mamlakathoi peshqadami Avrupo markazi hodisahoi muhimi kharakteri ichtimoi doshta gardidand.
(Revolyutsiyahoi burjuazii asrhoi 17-18). Mahz in mamlakatho ba nazariyae, ki kharakteri ichtimoi dosht, asos guzoshtand.
Nimai duyumi asri XIX talimoti nav – marksizm tashakkul yoft. Asosguzoroni in talimot K. Marks va F. Engels budand.
Karl Marks 5-mayi soli 1818 dar shakhri Trir (Germaniya) dar oilai advokat ba dunyo omadaast. u dar vakti tahsil dar universitet sh. Berlin ba guruhi inkilobchiyon (gegelchiyoni chavon) hamroh shud. Badi himoyai risolai doktori falsafa soli 1842 Marks ba shakhri Keln omada ba sifati muharriri gazetai Reyn ba faoliyat sar kard. Soli 1843 badi basta shudani gazeta Marks ba Parij omada dar machallai «Nemisi – fransavi» kor mekunad. Dar in machalla yakchand maqolahoi falsafii u chop karda meshavand.
Natichai faoliyati echodii K. Marks dar asarhoi «Tankidi iqtisodi siyosi» soli 1859 va «Karpital» soli 1867 chop shudand. Dar in asarho dar natichai omukhtani iktisodiyoti kapitalisti Marks talimoti khudro dar borai arzishi izofa va kapital asosnok mekunad.
Marks dar yak vaqt faoliyati revolyusioni meburd. Soli 1864 bo tashabbusi bevositai u dar London tashkiloti baynalmillali intelnasionali – 1 tasis doda shud, ki to soli 1872 faoliyat namud. K. Marks 14 marti soli 1883 vafot kard.
Marks asosgori nazariya va taktikai inkilobi proletari bud. u bo hamrohii F. Engels chahonbinii revolyusionii proletari – dialektikai materialiro kashf namudand. Onho dar natichai omukhtani tarikhi chamiyat, nazariyai materializmi tarikhiro echod namudand.
Engels hamsaf va rafiki K. Marks bud, ki tamomi hayoti khudro ba muborizai revolyusioni bakhshida bud. F.Engels 28 – noyabri soli 1820 dar shahri Barmeni
Germaniya dar oilai fabrikant tavallud shudaast. u ba monandi K. Marks barvaqt ba faoliyati revolyusioni doda shudaast. Nazariyai inkilobii F.Engels dar asarhoyash: «Ocherkhoi tankidi oidi iqtisodi siyosi» (soli 1844), «Vaziyati sinfi korgari Angliya» (soli 1845), «Ideologiyai nemis», «Manifesti partiyai kommunisti» (yakchoya bo K.Marks), «CHangi dehqonon dar Germaniya», «Anti-Dyuring», «Dialektikai tabiat», «Paydoishi oila molikiyati khususi va davlat», «Lyudvig Feyerbakh» va gayra inikos yoftaast.
F.Engels muborizi faoli revolyusioni bud. Hamchun dohi talimoti revolyusionii sinfi korgar ba muqobili hamai charayonho sozishkor va oportunisti muborizai beamon burda bud.
Marksizm – sistemai talimothoi falsafi, iqtisodi, siyosi, ichtimoi va manavi meboshad. In talimot dar «Karpital», «Manifesti partiyai Kommunisti» va asarhoi digari falsafi, iqtisodi va tarikhi asosnok karda shudaast.
Muvofiki akidai marksizm chomea chandin zinaho (formasiyakhoi chamiyati) ichtimoiro az sar guzaronidaast. Zinai Oli va okhirini on chamiyati kommunisti meboshad. Kommunizm chomeai be sinfu be tabaqa meboshad. Dar natichai taravdiyoti bemayloni kuvvakhoi istekhsolkunanda darachai balandi taravdiyoti chomea ba dast darovarda meshavad. In imkoniyat medikhad, ki odamon az chikhati ichtimoi barobar shavand. YAk chikhati mukhimi talimoti marksisti dar on ast, ki molikiyat umumi gardonda meshavad. Ba chomeai kommunisti guzashtan dar natichai purzur shudani ziddiyatkhoi oshtinopaziri burjuazkho va sinfi korgar imkon megardad. Va in guzarish dar natichai taraqqiyoti balandi zinai kapitalisti ba amal meoyad. Talimoti marksisti dar borai guzarish az kapitalizm kommunizmro V. I. Lenin dar sharoiti nav inkishof doda, nazariyai revolyusiyai sosialistiro kor karda baromad.
Bo paydoishi nazariya va talimotkhoi nav khizbu sozmonkhoi siyosi dar Avrupo, Osiyo, Amriko paydo shudand. Qadimtarin khizbi siyosii chakhon in khizbi Tori bud, ki dar nimai duyumi asri XVII dar Angliya tashkil yoftaast. Dakhkho khizbkhovu sozmonkho, ki dar asri XIX paydo shudand, raviyakhoi mukhtalifi siyosi doshta, manfiatkhoi tabaqakhoi gunoguni chamiyatiro khimoya menamudand.
Dar Russiya charayonkhoi siyosi dar zeri tasiri akidakhoi siyosii mamlakatkhoi Garb paydo shudand. Harakatkhoi inkilobi – ozodikhokhii Russiya ba se davra taqsim karda meshavad. Ba in kharakatkho SHurishi soli 1825 ibtido meguzorad. Az in sabab davrai yakum kharakati dekabriston nom giriftaast. Dar davrai yakum namoyandagoni dvoryaninkho – afsaroni rus shirkat karda mokhi dekabri soli 1825 shurish bardoshtand, ki dar tarikh ba nomi kharakati dekabriston malum meboshad. Avvalin tashkiloti dekabriton, ki soli 1816 tashkil yofta bud, «Ittifoki nachot» nomida meshud. Rokhbaron va faoloni in tashkilot barodaron Aleksandr va Nikita Muravevkho, barodaron Sergey va Matvey Bestujevkho Apostolkho, YAkushkin, Pestel, Lunin, Trubeskoy va digaron budand. Tashkiloti «Ittifoki nachot» barnoma va oinnomai khud dosht.
Maqsadi nihonii tashkilot bekor kardani tartiboti krepostnoy va barkaror namudani sokhti konstutsioni dar Rossiya bud.
Soli 1818 dar yak vakt chamiyati digari dekabriston «Ittifoki behbudi» tashkil yoft. In tashkilot nakshai aniki muborizaro bayon nakarda, asosan ba faoliyati tashviqoti targiboti makhdud meshud. Badtar dar asosi in tashkilotho chamithoi pinhonkori dekabriston «CHamiyati SHimoli» va «CHamiyati CHanubi» tashkil yoftand. Barnomai kori in tashkilotho dar «Haqiqati rus» va «Konstitusiya» inikos yofta budand. Muvofiki «Haqiqati rus» dar Rossiya sokhti kreposnoi barham khurda, barobarii komili shakhrvandon va barpo kardani sokhti respublikavi dar nazar doshta shuda bud.
Muvrofiki «Konstitutsiya» -i N.Muravyov Rossiya manarkhiyai konstitusioni elon karda shuda, podshoh hamchun vakolatdori olii davlatii ichroiya boki memond.
Badi be muvaffakiyat anchom yoftani shurishi dekabriston tashkilothoi onho parokanda gashta, soli 1861 davrai yakumi harakati ozodikhokhi ba okhir merasad.
Az soli 1861 davrai duyumi inkilobi – ozodikhokhii Rossiya sar meshavad. In davra raznochini (gunogun tabaqavi) nomida meshavad, ki namoyandagoni faoli in davra khalkchiyon budand.
Asosguzoroni nazariyai khalkchigi mutafakkironi buruzgi rus, Aleksandr Ivanovich Gersen (1812-1870) va Nikolay Gavrilovich CHernishevskiy (1828-1889) budand. A.I.Gernes ananahoi dekabristonro idoma doda, dar sakhifahoi jurnali «Kolokol» (Zangula) mutlakiyat va tartiboti kreposnoychigiro fosh mekardand. u chunin meshumorid, ki Rossiya bar khilofi Avrupoi Garbi davrai kapitalistiro az sar naguzaronida, ba vositai chamoai (obshinagi) dekhdon ba sosializm guzashta metavonad.
In akidai Gersenro N.I.CHernishevskiy idoma dod. CHernishevskiy orzuhoi khudro dar borai chamiyati nav dar romani «CHi boyad kard?» tachassum kardaast.
Kori Gersen va CHernishevskiyro khalqachiyoni revolyusioni solhoi 70-umi idoma dodand. Ba in guruh namoyandagoni ziyoiyon-tabaqahoi gunogun (raznochinkho) dokhil meshudand.
Halqachiyon roli progressivi doshtani kapitalizmro inkor karda, chunin akida doshtand, ki kapitalizm mamlakatro ba tanazzul burda merasonad. Dar Rossiya baroi kapitalizm zamina vuchud nadorad. Rossiya bo rokhi makhsusi khud taravdi karda, ba vositai chamoai dekhdoni ba sotsializm rafta merasad.
Halqchiyon dekhdonro kuvvai asosii inkilobi donista, dar davomi du- se sol ba «revolyutsiyai sotsialisti» mamlakatro rasonidani budand. Ba in maqsad «ba nazdi khalq» raftan sar shud. Az in ibora nomi khalkchiho paydo shudaast. Ammo in maqsadhoi khalkchiyon amali nagashtand va ideyai khalkchigi shikast khurd.
Soli 1876 chamiyati «Zamin va ozodi» tashkil yoft, ki krujokho (mahfilhoi) gunoguni khalqchiyon ba yak tashkiloti markazonidashuda muttakhid namud. Azoyoni in chamiyat propagandai akidahoi revolyusioniro dar bayni korgaron va dar hamin asos tayyor namudani rohbaroni oyandai shurishhoi dekhdoni az khisobi korgaron mashgul shudand.
Soli 1879 chamiyati «Zamin va ozodi» dar natichai paydo shudani ikhtilofho ba gurukhdoi «CHerniy peredel» (guruhi siyoh) va «Narodnaya volya» (Ozodii khalqho) taqsim shud. Agar guruhi, «CHyorniy predel» tarafdori davom dodani tashviqoti revolyusioni boshand, guruhi «Narodnaya volya» rokhi terror – kushtani podshoh va guzaronidani tabadulotro pesh giriftand. Ba podshoh Aleksandri – 2 chand marotiba suiqasd tashkil karda shuda, nihoyat soli 1881 bo rokhi tarkonidani bomba uro kushtand. Tashkilkunandagoni suiqasd A.Jelyabov, S. Perovskaya, N. Kibalchich dar Peterburg ba dor ovekhta shudand.
Umuman, khalkchigi ba se guruh: inkilobi, islohotchigi va terroristi (sui kasdchigi) taqsim meshudand.
Revolyusioneroni proletarii voris va
davomdihandagoni kori dekabriston, revolyusioneroni demokrati, tashkilothoi pinhoni, khalkchiyoni solhoi 70-um va avvalin tashkilothoi pinhonii korgari buda ba harakati ozodikhokhii Rossiya vorid gashtand.
Dar okhiri asri XIX dar Rossiya proletariat hamchun sinf tashakkul yoft. In zaruriyati tashkil kardani tashkilothoi korgariro ba miyon ovard. Soli 1875 dar Odessa «Ittifoki korgaroni Rossiyai CHanubi» tashkil karda shud. Badi se sol dar Peterburg Stepan Halturin va Viktor Obnorskiy «Ittifoki korgaroni Rusi SHimol» – ro tashkil dodand.
Garchande, ki tashkilothoi pinhonkori korgaron kamtar az yakunim sol faoliyat kardand, onho dar tarikhi harakati korgarii Rossiya osori khudro guzoshtand.
Sardori sotsial – demokratiyai rus Georgiy Plekhonov soli 1883 dar Jeneva krujoki guruhi «Ozodikunii mekhnat»- ro tashkil namud.
Guruhi «Ozodikunii mekhnat», ki ba on G.P.Plekhanov, P.Akselrod, V.Zasulich, G.Deych va digaron rohbari mekardand, «Manifesti partiyai kommunisti» va digar asarhoi Marks va Engelsro ba zaboni rusi tarchuma namuda ba Rossiya mefiristodand. Tashkilot baroi pakhn shudani marksizm dar Rossiya sakhmi kalon bozid. Makhsusan asarhoi G.Plekhonov «Sotsializm va muborizai siyosi» va «Ikhtilofhoi mo» dar in masala ahamiyati kalon doshtand.
Dar Peterburg soli 1895 bo tashabbusi V.I.Lenin tashkiloti marksisti proletarii «Ittifoki muboriza baroi ozodikunii sinfi korgar» tashkil yoft. Dar nimai duyumi solhoi 90-um chandin tashkilothoi digar dar markazhoi kaloni sanoatii mamlakat tasis yofta budand.
Soli 1898 sezdi 1-sots ial-demokrathoi Rossiya davat karda shud. Ammo dar sezd tashkilyobii partiya imkon nagardid.
Sezdi duyumi RSDRP 17 iyuli soli 1903 dar Bryusela davom namuda, badtar kori khudro dar London idoma dod. Sezd «Programmai Partiya», ki az du kism iborat bud, qabul namud: Programmai minimum sarnagun kardani mutlakiyati podshokhi, barkaror kardani chumkhurii
demokrati. Programmai maksimum bo rokhi revolyusiyai sotsialisti sarnagun kardani kapitalizm.
Dar sezd oidi paragrafi yakumi oinnoma dar borai azoyoni Hizb bahsu munoziraho sar shud. V.I.Lenin va tarafdoroni u, ki dar vaqti ovozdihi aksariyati ovozhoro sokhib shudand, bolshevik va tarafdoroni Martov-menshevik nom giriftand. Bo hamin RSDRP ba du shokha taqsim shud.
Dar davrai inkilobi yakumi rus solhoi 1905-1907 dar Russiya khizbu jarayonhoi siyosii nav, az jumla khizbi konstitusioni- demokrati «Ittifoki 17 oktyabr» (oktyabristho), «CHernosotensi», «Partiyai monorkhistii Rossiya», «Ittifoki khalki rus», «Ittifoki mardumi ba nomi Arkhangel», «CHamiyati muborizai faol ziddi inkilob va anarkhiya» va ayraho, tashkil yoftand.

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