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Falsafai din va Islom

Dar doirai maorifi islomi hangomi muayyan namudani joyu maqomi ilmi falsafa bazan ikhtilofi aqida va nuktai nazarho ba miyon meoyand. Avvalin ikhtilof noshi az on ast, ki oyo metavon falsafaro ba qatori ilmu maorifi islomi nom burd yo na? Soniyan, oyo ilmi kalom va tasavvuf mutaalliq ba falsafaand yo ba ilohiyot? Hamchunin tahti unvoni falsafai islomi chiro metavon nom burd? Qablan, mo dar du fasli in qismat az ilmi kalom va tasavvuf malumot dodem, ki khud du shokhai alohidai falsafai islomiro tashkil mekunand va chun dar in du ilm tanosubi ilohiyot bar masoili falsafi afzuntar ast, mo onhoro chun jarayonhoi alohidai tahavvuli afkori islomi judo kardem. Holo umuman dar borai falsafai islomi va khususiyoti on tavaqquf khohem kard.

Pesh az on ki dar mavridi masoili favq suhbat kunem, boyad guft, ki dar tarikhi farhangi toislomii arob hej nishonae az vujudi donishhoi falsafi ba chashm namekhurad. Zohiran to islom in navi donish baroi arob begona va nooshno budaast. In ast, ki dar ibtidoi tavsiai islom va kishvarkushoihoi khud arob ba ilmu farhangi sarzaminhoi fath gardida bo taassub raftor kardaand. Aqidai musalmonon dar in davra chunin buda , ki “islom on chiro ki pesh az on buda bekor va nobud (mansukh) mekunad” va “sazovor nest, ki musalmonon juz Quron chize bikhonand”. Ba ehtimoli ziyod dar asosi chunin aqida,- agar durust boshad,- arob dast ba suzondani kitobkhonai Iskandariya va Fors zadaand. Tibqi akhbori kitobhoi mutabari tarikhi: Ibn Kifti dar “Tarojim-ul-hukamo”, Abufaraji Malati dar “Mukhtasar-ud-davla”, Hoji Halifa dar “Kashf-uz-zunun”, Ibn Haldun dar “Muqaddimai tarikh” va yak qator muallifoni digar naql kardaand. ki vaqte arob sarzamini Forsro fath kardand va ba kitobkhonai on dast yoftand, Sad ibni Abi Vaqqos ba Umar noma navishta, az chi kor kardan bo in kitobho suol kard va u dar javob chunin farmon dod: ” Hamaro dar ob biyafkan, zero agar on chi dar onho hidoyat ast, Hudoi taolo moro ba hidoyatkunandatar az on hidoyat karda ast, va agar zalolat ast, niz Hudo moro az onho kifoyat kardaast.” \ Halabi. Duktur Ali Asjari Halabi.

Tarikhi tamadduni islom. Tehron: Bunyod, 1365. sah 53\

In akhbor dalolat bar on mekunad, ki musalmononi avval yo az hadishoi maruf \, ki dar onho gufta shudaast: “Hikmat gumshudai mumin ast, onro az har kas bishnavad megirad va parvo nadorad, ki az chi zarfe berun tarovidaast.” Va hamchunin farmuda: «Hikmatro harchand az zaboni mushrikon\ ast \faro bigired\.» khabar nadoshtaand yo in hadisho badan sokhta shudaand. Dar borai badan sokhta shudan yo nashudani in hadisho shubha kardan mumkin ast, vale dar mavridi on ki Quron beshtar az har kitobi digari osmoni ba taaqqulyane ba istifodai aql va sitoishu buzurgdoshti aqlu khirad , ilmu hikmat davat kardaast, hej shubhe nametavon kard. Dar Quron tanho ba manii davat ba korburdi aql va sitoishi hikmat ziyoda az 65 oyat mavjud ast.Az in ru imkon nadorad, ki akhbori nomburda sidq doshta boshad.

Bo vujudi in, ba har surat yak chiz aniq ast, falsafa va mantiq ilmhoe hastand, ki dar shakli sofu tashakkulyoftai khud az khorij voridi farhangu maorifi islomi gardidand va pazirufta shudand va aksar az in muqaddimae baroi ulumi dini (mantiq) va juzi tafakkuri dini (falsafa) qaror giriftand. SHoyad paziroii falsafa dar olami islom[1] az on sabab bud, ki Quron mohiyatan, chunon ki zikr shud bo tafakkuri istidloli va aqlivu mantiqi, ki usuli asosii falsafa ast, mukholifat namekunad, balki dar on mukarrar ba chunin navi shinokht va tafakkur davat shudaast.

Holo pesh az on ki ba shinokhti falsafai nobi islomi shuru kunem, boyad donist, ki khudi falsafa chist? Tabiist, ki har yak istiloh doroi du tarif yo mani ast. YAke manii lugavi va digare mani yo tarifi istilohi (kori)-i on. Falsafa aslan kalimai yunoni buda az du resha: yake “filu yo fil”\rI1eo\ ba manii dustdoshtan, dustdor va digare “sofiyo” \8orIa\ ba manii hikmat, khirad, donish ast. Pas falsafa muarrabi “filusufiyoyofilosofiya”\rI1ozorIa\ buda, maniilujaviash dust doshtani donish, hikmat yo khirad ast. Nakhustin bor dar YUnoni Qadim Aflotun ustodash Suqrotro “filosofius”- dustdori khirad yo hikmat nomida bud.

Hanuz pesh az Suqrot guruhe ba maydon omada budand, ki khudro “sofist”, yane donishmand menomidand. CHun Suqrot shakhsi furutan va khoksore budaast, namekhostast, ki uro donishamand yo khiradmand -sofist khonand, khudro filosof-dustdori khikmat, donish nomidaast. Badtar vojai sofist ba tadrij mani ivaz karda dar muqobili filosofiya qaror girift va ba manii galatkori va behudagui, ba arabi”safsatta” tabdil shud va filosofiya joi onro girift.

Tarifi istilohii falsafa nihoyat ziyod ast, har maktabu mazhabe ba on az mavqei nazariyavii khud tarif dodaast. Maniyu mundarija va gunjoishi in istiloh bo mururi zamon va guzashti davraho niz tagyir kardaast. Hamchun istiloh falsafa yo hikmat iborat ast “Ilm bar haqoiqi ashyo va mavjudot ba andozai tavonoii fakhmi inson” yo “Falsafa iborat ast az ilm bar vuiud az on hays , ki vujud ast.” In tarif hamai ulumi digar: tibbu riyoziyot, tabiiyot va gayraro shomil meshud.

Dar YUnoni boston falsafa ba hamin manii khele vase nazar ba on, ki badtar kasb kardaast, istifoda meshudaast. Dar falsafai islomi niz falsafa nomi yak fanni khos yo donishi khos nest, hama donishhoi aqliro dar muqobili donishhoi naqli tahti unvoni falsafa nom meburdand. Faylasuf kase nomida meshud, ki donandai hamai ilmhoi aqlii zamon, alalkhusus ilohiyot, riyoziyot, tabiiyot, siyosiyot, akhloqiyot va manziliyot boshad. Falosifai muslimin vaqe mekhostand az mavqei Arastu tabaqabandii doirai ulumi falsafiro bayon kunand, meguftand, falsafa yo hikmat bar du qism ast: hikmati nazari va amali.

Falsafai nazari dar borai ashyo on chunon ki hast bahs mekunad va falsafai amali dar borai afolu raftori inson on chunon ki boista va shoista ast, bahs mekunad. Falsafai nazari bar se qism ast: ilohiyot, riyoziyot va tabiiyot. Falsafai amali niz dar navbati khud ba se qismat taqsim meshavad, ki iborat az ilmi akhloq ilmi tadbiri manzil va ilmi siyosat ast.

Ahamiyati falsafa dar tarikhi tamadduni islomi az on jihat ziyod ast, ki musalmonon, chunon ki guftem, ilmi kalomro niz bar poyai falsafa bino kardand va daloili aqliyu falsafiro dar difo az mabohisi shariat ba kor burdand. “Ammo bo hama ahamiyate, ki falsafa dosht,- chunon ki Duktur Ali Asgari Halabi mefarmoyad,- kasone, ki badon ishtigol doshtand, hamvora ba kufr va tatil (in kalima niz hamradifi kufr ast) muttaham budand.” \ Halabi. Duktur Ali Asgari Halabi. Tarikhi tamadduni islom. Tehron: Bunyod, 1365. sah 56\ Alalkhusus, dar dushmani bo falsafa faqehon va muhaddison kushishi ziyod ba kharj dodaand.

[1]  Sarfi nazar az mukholifatho va muborizahoe, ki badan bo falsafa az asri 11 ba bad, pas az Gazoli shudand.

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