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ILMI KALOM CHIST

YAke az ulumi islomi -ilmi kalom ast. Dar mavridi bo chi sabab kalom nom giriftani in ilm aqidaho mukhtalif meboshand, az in ru chun in kitob imkoni bayoni hamai on aqidahoro nadorad, mo bevosita ba tarifi ilmi kalom shuru mekunem. Haddi aqal kalom ilmest, ki dar borai aqoidi islomi, yane har on chi musulmonon bo on etiqodu imon dorand bo istifoda az aqlu mantiq bahs mekunad. Odatan tamomi talimoti islomro chunon ki qablan didem, ba se qismat: aqoid, akhloq, ahkom taqsim kardaand.

Ilme, ki masoili qismati avval, yane masoili aqadaviro meomuzad kalom nomida shudaast, ilme ki masoili akhloqiro meomuzad hamon ilmi akhloq ast va ilme, ki masoili qismati seyum ahkomro meomuzad, ilmi fiqh nom dorad. Kalom metavon guft falsafai mazhabii islom ast. Dar dinhoi digar niz falsafai mazhabi vujud dorand, vale na ba nomi kalom. Tafovuti kalom az falsafa dar on ast, ki falsafa dar mavridi hasti-olam biduni pobandi ba in yo on aqidai dini bahs mekunad va ammo kalom donishest, ki baroi hifzu difoi asoshoi talimoti islom az hamalotu intiqodhoi mukholifoni on(- ilhodgaroyonu dahriyon va faylasufon) ba vujud omada, rui masoili ilohiyoti (- khudoshinosi va dar robita bo on hastishinosi, maod- hayoti ondunyovi va masoili marifat- gnoseologiya va g-ra) bo istifoda az usulhoi mantiqiyu falsafi bahs mekunad.

Dar mavridi paydoishi kalom niz aqidaho ziyodand. Bad az gustarishu peshravii islom dar khoki kishvarho va milllathoi gunogun, ki sathi farhangiyu ilmii balandtare nazar ba arob doshtand vaziyat nisbat ba sadri islom tagyir meyobad. Irtibot bo eroniyon, siryoniyon, rumoniyon, misriyon, ki oshnoi bo falsafa va ulumi aqli doshtand, barkhurd bo namoyandagoni dinhoi yahudi, nasroni, zardushti va intiqodoti onho va nihoyat paydoishi ikhtilofot: firqahoi bidatgaro, ilhodi, zanodiqa va dahriya dar dokhil va khoriji islom musalmononro majbur kard, to vositavu rohhoi himoya az aqoidi islomiro justuju kunand. Hamin omilho sababi paydoishi falsafai kalom gardidaand. Ilmi kalomro inchunin ilmi usuli din yo f i q h i a k b a r niz guftaand.

Hulosa, ilmi kalom ilmi nazari va istidloliest, ki asosan dar mavridi tavhid va sifati Hudo, mabda va maod, nubuvvat qazovu qadar va gayra bahs kardaast. Dar doirai kalom badan masoili digari falsafi: azali yo ofarida budani olam, javhar va araz, harakat va sukut, khalo va zarrot va gayra niz matrah gardidaand. On chi masoile, ki bevosita ba aqoidi islomi vobasta budand bo nomi zohirul-kalom (yo jamilul-kalom) va on chi ba masoili falsafi va falsafai tabiat vobasta budand daqiqul-kalom nomida shudaand.

Zuhuri ilmi kalomro ibtidoi asri 8-um shumoridaand, vale baze ulamoi islom bar on aqidaand, ki usuli muhokimavu isboti kalomi dar khudi Quron ast va in jonib niz bar chunin aqida mebosham. Voqean, dalolati korburdi aqlro ba bandagon khudi Hudovand dar Quron borho kardaast. Vale baroi hamchun ravishi ilohiyoti tashakkulyobii kalom muddatero dar bar megirad. Davrai muqaddimoti ilmi kalomro ulamo bo korkardi «fiqhi akbar» tavassuti Abuhanifa irtibot dodaand. Ogozi istidloloti aqli dar islom bo nomi Jad binniDarham (qatl.742- 43) vobasta ast. U avvalin shuda dar masalai dini tanho bo aql etimod kardan va oyoti ba aql mukholifat doshtai Quronro bo tarzi tavil bayon kardan davat namudaast. Bad az u Jahm ibni Safvon (qatl.745) kori uro idoma dodaast.

Nakhustin masoile, ki mutakallimoni nasli avval rui on bahshoe shabehi bahshoi falsafi orostaand iboratand: 1chigunagii vazi imonii shakhsi murtakibi gunohi kabira shuda, yane gunohi buzurg sodir karda, 2masalai sifot va zoti Hudo, 3- masalai jabr va ikhtiyor budaast.

Vale ikhtilofi asosii aqidavi malum meshavad, ki rui masalai jabr va ikhtiyor, masalai sarnavishtu taqdir, hududi ozodii irodai bashar va haddi vobastagii vay az irodai ilokhi rukh dod. Onhoe, ki jonibdori az ozodii faoliyati bashar va mukhtorii inson dar kasbu intikhob mekardand q a d a r i ya nom giriftaast. Baze ulamo guftaand, ki agar ba hadisho etimod kunem, metavon guft, ki in firqa hanuz dar davrai zinda budani khudi Muhammad (s) vujud doshtaand. Guvoh ba in hadisi marufest, ki dar on gufta shudaast “al-qadariyatul-majusu hozihil-ummati.” YAne, “qadariya majus (zardushtiyon)-i in ummat hastand“.

Baraks onhoe, ki bar khilofi qadariya, basharro yaksara tobei sarnavisht, majbur, be ikhtiyoru ozodii amal medonistand j a b a r i ya nomida shudaand.

Talimoti qadariya az tarafi m u t a z i l a (asri 710) dastgiri va ravnaq yoft. Az in ru mutaziliyonro qadariya niz menomand. Harchand khudi onho say kardaand, ki in nomro (az baski Payombari islom (s), chunon ki ishora kardem onhoro majus nomidaast) ba khud nisbat nadihand va khudro “ahli tavhid” menomidand.

Asosguzori mutazila Vasil ibni Ato (699-748) dar mahfili Hasani Basri (vaf.s.728) dar Basra tahsil mekardaast, vale pas az ikhtilof rui yakchand masalai ilohiyoti az onho judo meshavad. Az inru nomi firqae, ki u asos meguzorad mutazila (az kal.arab. itazila judo shudan) nomida shudaast. Dar voqe mutazila yake az shokhahoi ilmi kalom ba shumor meravad.

Mutazila asosan rui panj masala bo islomi rasmi ikhtilof doshtand. Muhimtarini onho 1- t a v h i d ast. Onho tasavvuroti dinii soddai tashbehi (antropomorfi)i islomi rasmiro dar mavridi Alloh rad karda, khudoshinosiro ba fahmishi falsafi nazdik kardaand. YAne onho bar khilofi qishriyoni ahli sunnat va jamoat sifoti Hudoro ayni zoti Hudo medonistand va amri izofi va berun az zoti Ilohi budani sifot (atributho)i Hudoro rad mekardand; 2 Onho guftand: Quron qadim va azali nest, yane hodis va makhluq ast. Hudovand, meguftand onho, onro dar vaqti zarurat khalq farmuda, ba zamin nozil karda. In nazari onho niz mabni ba tavhid bud. Onho etiqod ba azaliyat va qadimiyati Quronro mukholifi asli tavhid meshumoridand, yane dar barobari Alloh mavjudi digare monandi u azali va qadim va gayri makhluq qaror dodanro shirk (politeizm) mehisobidand. Ikhtilofi digari mutazila rui masalai a d l i i l o h i bud. Mutazila etiqodi omma va isrori ahli sunnatro dar mavridi beikhtiyorii bashar dar nazdi sarnavisht, khilofi asli adl meshumoridand. Az nazari onho tasdiqi on ki Alloh har kiro khohad hidoyat mekunad va har kiro khohad ba zalolat meandozad va inchunin hukmi taqdiri azalii ilokhi oid ba saodat va shaqovat mukholif bo adli ilohist. Baroi isboti in hama nazariyoti khud onho az Quron oyote istinbot kardaand va guftaand, ki Allohi taolo odil ast va imkon nadorad, ki kasero az rui sarnavishti muayyankardai khudash mahkum ba khatokori va gunoh kunad va boz onhoro, ki be ikhtiyori khud ba hukmi sarnavisht gunoh sodir kardaand, azobu uqubat namoyad.

Az in ki guzarem muhimtarin tafovuti mutazila az qishriyoni ashobi sunnat va hadis aqlgaroii onhost. Az in ru mutazilaro ashobi ray va aqlgaro (aqliyun) niz menomand. Mutazila, metavon guft, nakhustin firqai liberalii islomi, ba on aqida budaand, ki amoli mazhabi va etiqodii bashar dar surate metavon durust boshad, ki mutobiq ba aql boshad. Mutazila, ki dar shahrhoi kalontarini SHom va Iroq zohir shudand, kasone budand, ki bo afkori yunoniyon, masehiyon va zardushtiyu monaviya shinosoi doshtand. In oshnoi va mutoliot chunin natijaro ba bor ovard, ki hej mabda va asli kalomi va shari naboyad juz ba tarozui aql sanjida shavad. Onho chunin guftand, ki har mabda va asle, ki bo adl yo tavhidi ilohi andake mukholifat kunad, ba hukmi aql qobili qabul nest. Ratsionalizm, yane khiradgaroii mutazila badan dar tuli tamomi tarikhi islom ba mukholifati akhli qolu ahli hol- etiqodgaroyon duchor megardad. Mutazila, misli jabariya na ravishi mazhabi balki yak ravishi kalomi bud, ki dar har mazhabe chi shii va chi sunni chi hanafi va chi shofei payravoni on budand.

Mutazila badtar hamchun firqai mazhabiyu siyosi niz tashakkul yofta, dar navbati khud ba chandin firqa taqsim shudaast. Maruftarini onho: vosiliya, huzayliya, nazzomiya, khobitiya, bishriya, muammariya, murdoriya, johiziya va gayra meboshand.

Namoyandagoni marufi mutazila: Vosil ibni Ato (699-748), Abul Quzeyl al-Allof (vaf. 849), Abi Ishoq Ibrohim ibni Sayf an-Nazzom (vaf. 836 yo 845), al- Johiz (vaf.868), Ato ibni YAsor, Said ibni Abi Arubo, Qatoda ibni Daoma, QishomDastvoi, SayidibniIbrohim, MuhammadibniIshoq va gayra meboshand.

YAk davrai muayyane, chunon ki guftem, mutazila az tarafi khalifai abbosi Mamun va vorisoni vay alMutasim va Vosiq dar sathi davlatiyu siyosi pushtibon paydo mekunand. Vale badho khudi in firqa ba taqibu terrori sakht ru ba ru gardida az bayn raft va in talafoti kalone baroi farhangi islomi gardid.

Bad az mutazila maruftarin firqai kalomi yo maktabi ilohifalsafie, ki ba vay muqobil ast a sh a r i ya meboshad. Ashariyon az jabhai ashobi hadis yo khud ahli sunnati qishri budand. Asosguzori ashariya Abul-Qasan Aly al-Ashary (873­935) bud, ki khud dar maktabi mutazila tarbiyat yofta ast.

Ahli sunnat ba mutazila hamon vaqt tavonistand zarba zanand, ki bo uslubi khudi mutazila burhonhoi mantiqi, istidlolhoi aqliro dar raddi iddaohoi onho ba kor burdand. To zamoni Ashari ulamoi suni az istifodai uslubi naqdi mantiqi dar tafsiri Quron va hadisho ijtinob menamudand va aqida doshtand, ki vahyi Ilohi ehtiyoje ba sanjishi tarozui aql nadorad. Boyad be shakku shubha ba on etiqod kard.

Al-Ashari kushidaast, aqidai ahli sunnat dar mavridi qismatu taqdirro bo talimoti mutazila oid ba ozodii irodai bashar, oshti dikhad. Dar in mavrid ashariya mavqei mobayniro dar bayni du firqai ifrotii qadariya va jabariya ishgol kard. Ashari to andozae ishtiroki irodai basharro dar intikhob (k a s b)-i amolash etirof kard. Ashari bar on aqida ast, ki inson na tanho doroi qudrat ast, yane metavonad amoli khudro biofarinad, balki niz metavonad iktisob (kasb) namoyad, yane intikhoban amal kunad. U nazari mutazilaro, ki bayni du guna amali inson, yane amoli jabri va amoli ozod tafovut meguzorand, qabul dorad, inchunin nazari mutazilaro dar borai in ki inson ba ikhtilofho ogohii vijdoni dorad mepazirad, ammo mutaqid ast, ki qudrat, yane on tavonoie, ki amoli insonro meofarinad, khorij az inson ast va on qudrat poydor va doimi nest. Ashari dar har yak raftoru amali ozodonai inson mudokhilai du amalro mebinad: yake, amali khalq va ejod, ki mudokhilai Hudovand ast va digare, amali iktisob (kasbu intikhob), ki mudokhilai bashar ast. Ashariya masuliyati basharro baroi amalash etirof mekard.

Hulosai aqoidi ashariya in ast, ki Alloh na faqat vohid ast, balki “Kul- fil-Kul”(Sull dar dokhili kull ast) ast. HAYOT va iLmva QUDRATva IRODA va SHUNAVOi va BINOi va KALOM in haft sifat-atributhoi khosai zoti ilohist. Onho khorij az doirai zamonu makonand va hama noshi va vujudi ilohi hastand. Hudo insonro ba amoli u khalq farmud va inson ba istiqloli zotii khud nametavonad bubinad va bishnavad, bidonad va bikhohad, magar on ki Hudovand baroi onho muqaddar farmuda boshad. Pas Alloh illat ul-ilal ( sababi sababho) va yo musabibi asbobi kulli havodis dar tuli umri inson ast. Ashariya, bar khilofi mushabbihin (antropomorfistho)-i ifroti, yane sifatiyon va inkori qatii on tavassuti mutazila, vujudi sifoti zoti (substansionali)-i tavam ba mohiyati uro etirof kard. Masalan, gufta ki Alloh sababgori hamai vaqoe va havodis ast, dar haqiqat bar farozi arsh qaror megirad vale uro dastu povu chashmu gushu digar azoyu uzvhoi badan nest. YAne nishastani Hudo ba arsh bo nishastani bani bashar shabohat nadorad. CHun Quron mefarmoyad, ki Hudo ba chize shabeh va monand nest (laysa – ka misluhu shayan). Mardi mumin boyad ba on chi, ki guft biduni chunu charo imon orad va taslim shavad. Hulosa, ashariya bo in falsafai khud zaminai talimoti ahli sunnatro mustahkam namuda, jilavi aqlgaroi (ratsionalizm)-i nomahdudi mutazilaro nigah dosht, va guftan mumkin ast, ki in avvalin zuhuri tafakkuri falsafi badi mutazila dar doirai islomi rasmi bud.

Ashari dar borai azaliyati Quron bar on aqida bud, ki kalimot va manoi on dar ilmi khudovand az azal vujud doshta. Lekin on huruf va satrhoe, ki bar sahifahoi varaqaho nigoshta shudaast va az rui on kalimot va oyotro dar in jahon menavisand, tilovat mekunand makhluqi insoni ast va hodisai zamini va dunyavi meboshad. In tariqai halli ofarida budan va azaliyati Quron, ki Ashari vaz namud, kushishe dar rohi halli ikhtilofi mavjuda bud va on az tarafi ahli sunnat maqul donista shud. Bad az Ashari Abumansur Motridi (vaf. 944) az ahli Samarqand nazariyai uro davom doda, takmil namudaast.

Namoyandagoni marufi maktabi ashari: Abubakr al-Boqiloni (vaf.403- 1013m.) muallifi kitobi “at-Tamhid”, Ibn Furq Abubakr Muhammadibni alHasan (vaf.1010 m.), Abu-Ishoq al-Asfaroini (vaf.1027), Abdulqohir binni Tohir al- Batdodi (vaf. 1037), Abujafar Muhammad as-Simnoni (vaf.1052) , Imom-ul- Haramayn (vaf.1085) muallifi “Kitob bul-Irshod”, Imom Muhammad Gazzoli (vaf. 111-), Abdulkarimi SHahristoni (vaf. 1153), Imom Fakhriddini Rozi (vaf.1161- 1210) va gayra ba shumor meravand.

Talimoti Ashari zaminai asosii ilohiyoti maktabii islom kalomro poyarezi namud va naqshi muhime dar falsafai ilohii islom guzosht.

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